Means "from two different origins" or "created by mixing" or colloquially (sometimes also pejoratively) also mixed breed, bastard or blendling. In scientific language use, this means a living being (plant, animal) that through crossing by parents of different breeding lines (genus = genus or species = species). Crossings that arise spontaneously in nature without human intervention are referred to as natural hybrids, especially in plants. In viniculture, hybrids are understood only as the results of crosses between different species or genera. Strictly speaking, crosses of the same species are already hybrids (intraspecific = within the species). However, this is usually not interpreted in this way, but rather understood as hybrids only interspecific or intergeneric crossings.
This doesn't look as spectacular in plants as it does in animals and is not immediately recognizable even by experts. The situation is very different for hybrids in the animal world, the best known examples are mules (donkey mare x horse stallion), mule (horse mare x donkey stallion) and liger (male lion x female tiger).
Hybrids in the viticultural sense are crosses of two different species. When crossing for the first time, one speaks of primary hybrids. As a rule, however, hybrids with American genes (e.g. Vitis cinerea, Vitis labrusca, Vitis riparia etc.) with the desired properties are crossed with a European cultivar (Vitis vinifera) in new breeds. The result is secondary hybrids. Most of the varieties, some of which are phylloxera and resistant to phylloxera, were created in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Many have the intrusive Foxton what disqualifies them for winemaking, at least in Europe. These varieties created in the USA are called American hybrids, although they also contain European genes. These are e.g. B. Agawam. albania. Alden. America. Blanc Du Bois. Campbell Early. Cayuga White. Clinton. Concord. Elvira. Delaware. Dutchess. Herbemont. Hopkins. Horizon. Iona. Isabella. Jacquez. Melody. Missouri Riesling. Munson. Niagara. Norton. Noah. Orlando Seedless. Othello. Olmo grapes. Taylor. Traminette and Venus,
The sometimes complex cross-breeding products of European breeders of the late 19th and early 20th centuries are known as French hybrids, because especially in France, but also in Spain, Hungary and Russia, attempts were made to solve the problem of vine extinction due to phylloxera breeding to mitigate phylloxera-resistant hybrid varieties for viticulture. Of course, American species also had to be used. The US botanist Thomas Volney provided valuable help Munson (1843-1913) regarding documents, as well as the breeder Hermann, who immigrated to Missouri from Switzerland Hunter (1844-1895) regarding American hybrids, which were then used to cross with European varieties.
Complex crosses of hybrid varieties with Europeans Vines or other hybrid types (secondary hybrids, multi-hybrids) Aurore. Baco Blanc. Baco noir. Bellandais. Cascade. Chambourcin. Chancellor. Chardonel. chelois. Colobel. Couderc Noir. De Chaunac. Etoile I. Etoile II. Flot Rouge. Frontenac. Garonnet. Gloire de Seibel. Leon Millot. Lucie Kuhlmann. Maréchal Foch. Maréchal Joffre. marquis. Neron. Oberlin Noir. Pinard. Plantet. President. Ravat Blanc. Ravat noir. Rayon d'Or. Roi des Noirs. rosette. Roucaneuf. Rougeon. Salvador Noire. Siegfriedrebe. Triomphe d'Alsace. Varousset. Verdelet. Vignoles. Vidal Blanc. Villard Noir and vivarais,
When you got that phylloxera Recognized as the cause of vineyard death, attempts were made from the 1880s to breed phylloxera-resistant grape varieties with good wine quality through large-scale crossing programs. However, the more Vitis vinifera shares of these hybrid varieties, the better the wine quality, but all these hybrids with crosses of Vitis vinifera did not show sufficient phylloxera resistance. In contrast, the phylloxera-resistant hybrid varieties with little or no Vitis vinifera were often inedible (Foxton) and unusable for winemaking. But early breeding goals were already resistance against the harmful fungi that were also brought in from America with phylloxera mildew and more Vine enemies, as well as resistance to frost and drought and other quality improvements.
The French breeders, François, were the first to breed the first and second hybrid generations Baco (1865-1947), Albert Seibel (1844-1936), Eugéne Kuhlmann (1858-1932), Jean François Ravat (+1940), Bertille Seyve (1864-1939), Jean-Louis Vidal (1880-1976) and Victor Villard active. The French hybrids were used as partners for further hybridizations. The US winegrowing pioneer Philip wagner (1904-1996) started at his winery in the 1940s Maryland many went to America and was largely responsible for the fact that these spread to the entire east coast. Also the Wisconsin vine grower Elmer Swenson (1913-2004) used French hybrids for its frost hardy new varieties, Pure Vitis vinifera varieties, a pioneer in this regard, are only slowly becoming established at his winery in the Finger Lakes was the one at Cornell University in the US state new York active Dr. Konstantin Frank (1897-1985).
Many of these varieties (especially of Seibel and Seyve Villard ) still as a starting material for crossbreeding. From when these crossings are no longer considered to be interspecific, because the proportion of foreign genes is "low" is an important point regarding approval for wines with indication of origin. The fight against phylloxera After countless attempts, however, it was ultimately not obtained through cross breeding, but through finishing, that means grafting European scions to phylloxera-resistant American documents, Since phylloxera was slow to advance, did not rage equally everywhere and some hybrid varieties at least provided drinkable wine, many winegrowers understandably ignored the early campaigns for refinement in the first third of the 20th century for cost reasons.
However, since the high-quality noble varieties of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera could only survive as more expensive graft vines, strict laws against the hybrids were enacted in Germany and Austria-Hungary. According to the current state of knowledge, the discussions were very emotional and, from today's perspective, with absurd arguments. In the 1929 book “Die Direktträger” by Dr. Fritz Zweigelt (1888-1964) reads as follows: The specific toxic effects are tendency to hallucinations, anger excesses in men, hysteria in women, mental and physical degeneration in children. People who drink Noah wine on a regular basis have a pale, pale complexion, tremble all over and die away. Farmers with grafted vineyards, on the other hand, are healthy, hard-working and have numerous children. In France, the direct carriers contribute to filling the madhouses.
This put the winemakers under pressure, theirs American vines to clear and instead plant grafted vines. In many vineyards, however, these easy-care, high-yielding varieties survived because they were fungus-resistant and phylloxera-resistant. They were often called table grapes, also for wine jelly, Jam and vinegar were used, but in some cases wine was made from them. Many winegrowers therefore long refused to clear their American vines, which is why a gradual ban was enforced. In Burgenland, Austria, for example, this affected the grape variety in 1926 Noah, In 1929 such wines or blends with them were banned and in 1936 a general ban on planting was decided. Only the generation of Piquette for your own use was allowed. Decriminalization did not take place until 1991. According to EU Regulation New planting is prohibited, there are still usage periods for existing vineyards. The wines are examples of this Americano (Switzerland), Fragola (Italy) and Uhudler (Austria) with three of the approved varieties in the picture.
According to the EU regulation, no wines from varieties of interspecific crosses are allowed provenance be generated. On the other hand, however, each member state can determine which varieties it would like to use, and which ones as Quality wine-grape varieties sets. Strictly speaking, all crossings with American or Asian vines would be excluded. However, this has brought some problems in recent years new varieties with yourself, because under the term PIWI (fungal resistance) should be as high as possible as an important breeding goal resistance against mushrooms how Botrytis and both mildews, other pests or environmental conditions such as frost can be achieved. However, this requires Asian / American species, as many of the Vitis vinifera strains usually do not have sufficient resistance have.
Because of the grape variety regent there was a dispute between Germany and the EU in this regard. The question was whether the variety should be considered a hybrid or not. Due to its American Vitis labrusca genes, it has a high proportion of 200 to 300 mg / l anthocyanin Malvidine-3,5-Diglucoside. This substance, often referred to as "hybrid dye", does not affect health or taste, but the presence of American genes proves it is on the recommendation of INAO set to a maximum of 15 mg / l in a quality wine. The term "hybrid dye" or "direct carrier dye" is misleading, however, because unbredged and / or refined Labrusca vines also contain the dye.
The prohibition of interspecific crossings for wines with indication of the origin (Quality wines, country wines) was mostly justified by the EU with a poor wine quality. In order to provide an objective basis for decision-making, a study was carried out on behalf of the European Commission in 2003 by external contractors from Germany, France and Hungary. The research work and scientific data were carried out at the INRA as in Geisenheim levied. The study should provide the answers to the following three questions: 1) Are there quality differences between wines from Vitis Vinifera varieties and wines from interspecific varieties? 2) Is it possible to reduce the use of plant protection products in viticulture by using interspecific grape varieties? 3) What economic impact would the use of interspecific grape varieties have?
18 interspecific grape varieties or wines made from them were included in the study. The sorts Baco Blanc. Baco noir. Bianca. Chardonel. Couderc Noir. Medina (1), Seyval Blanc. Traminette. Vidal Blanc. Villard Blanc. Villard Noir and Zala Gyöngye were divided into the three groups "Old interspecific varieties", "Central European interspecific varieties" and "New mildew resistant interspecific varieties developed outside EU". The four new German breeds Johanniter. Merzling. regent and rondo To a small extent also contain American and Asian genes that are foreign to the species, but were grouped together as the fourth group as reference varieties with "Fungus tolerant Vitis-vinifera varieties". This is due to backcrossing the first results with the Vitis vinifera varieties involved. The Regent variety was mentioned as "not considered as interspecific" and was considered to belong to the species Vitis vinifera, although it also has alien genes.
With regard to the quality of the wines, the study showed that both bad and good quality can be achieved, provided that the interspecific grape varieties are cultivated appropriately with regard to their cultivation practices and planted in appropriate areas. The assessment of the environmental impact has been very positive. The use of pesticides would decrease significantly when using interspecific varieties. They are particularly suitable in the Organic viticulture authority. Looking at the impact on market equilibrium, the study estimates that increasing the use of interspecific varieties within the next ten years would increase total production in the EU by around 1.8% and thus neglect the economic impact.
Ultimately, the study's authors suggest that the current ban on the use of interspecific grape varieties should be maintained to provide an incentive for further research that would produce new and better interspecific varieties. However, the study was taken up differently in the individual member states and clearly shows the problems within the European Union for 27 countries and more to create uniform rules that are accepted by all. Denmark, England, the Netherlands and Sweden are in favor of lifting the ban. Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain, however, are in favor of retention. The countries of Germany, France, Luxembourg and Austria, on the other hand, generally welcome study and objectives, but only see the research work at the beginning. See also under Vines systematics as well as a list of keywords relevant to grape varieties under grapevine,