Funds used in agriculture and forestry within the group of pesticides used to kill, displace or inhibit insects and their stages of development for the plant protection be used. The name derives from the Latin terms "insecta" (insect) and "caedere" (kill). Insecticides act as a contact, feed or respiratory poison on the insects or their developmental stages (eggs, worms). Insects as pests in viticulture were already in the antiquity fought because they opposed microorganisms as enemies of grapevine were visible. In many biblical Lyrics and murals will be especially of locust plagues in Egypt reported. Greeks and Romans fought insects mixed with oil sulfur and Pliny the Elder (23-79) writes about the use of arsenic, The same reported Marco Polo (1254-1324) of China, From the middle of the 18th century, more salts became available lead. iron and mercury used.
The first chemical-based synthetic agents were developed at the end of the 19th century. Initially, it was broad spectrum insecticides that were toxic to almost all insects. The first was Bayer's Antinonnin (a methylphenol) in 1892, available both as an insecticide and as a herbicide Application found. In 1938 became the first organophosphate In 1939, DDT was first used and for a number of decades it was widely used in the fight against insects. Only late did the adverse consequences such as poor biodegradability and accumulation in the fatty tissue of mammals. From the early 1970s, many chloroorganic compounds were banned, including the DDT.
There is a wealth of specific insecticides. The approved conventional preparations are mostly pyrethroids, phosphoric acid ester derivatives or chlorinated hydrocarbons. A distinction is made between remedies with immediate effect (if the worms have already hatched) and those with immediate and permanent effects (if further slippage is to be expected). The so-called moulting inhibitors (blocking the moulting) or moulting accelerators attack with a hormone-like effect in the development of larvae and lead to the death of the larvae. A subform are the ovicides (lat. Ovum = egg), with which the sex products (= eggs) of insects are killed or their development inhibited. In the 2010s, the neonicotinoids acting on the nerve cells of insects, which are responsible for the worldwide bee mortality were discredited. Even the smallest amounts harm bumblebees and honey bees sustainably. They are also included in insect sprays.
In viticulture with insecticides and others weevil. grubs. locusts. mites. Rebstecher. Rhombenspanner. Springwurmwickler. grape and cicadas fought. As part of the Biological plant protection is completely based on insecticides Integrated pest management omitted if possible. Instead, the control takes place on a biological basis in the form of mushrooms. bacteria and virus, An example is the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, Furthermore, natural enemies like predatory mites used or the disrupter ( pheromones ) applied. See below Organic viticulture,