Funds used in agriculture and forestry within the group of pesticides that are used to kill, repel or inhibit insects and their stages of development for the plant protection be used. The name is derived from the Latin terms "insecta" (insect) and "caedere" (kill). Insecticides act as contact, feeding or breathing poison on the insects or their developmental stages (eggs, worms). Insects as pests in viticulture have already been identified in the antiquity fought because they are contrary to microorganisms as enemies of the grapevine were visible. In many biblical Texts and murals are particularly of locust plagues in Egypt reported. Greeks and Romans fought insects mixed with oil sulfur and Pliny the Elder (23-79) writes about the use of arsenic, The same is also reported by Marco Polo (1254-1324) from China, From the mid-18th century, salts were increasingly made lead. iron and mercury are used.
The first synthetic chemical agents were developed at the end of the 19th century. Initially, broad-spectrum insecticides were toxic to almost all insects. The first was Antinonnin (a methylphenol) from Bayer in 1892, which was used both as an insecticide and as a herbicide Applied. In 1938 the first organophosphate developed and in 1939 the DDT was first used, which was used extensively in the fight against insects for several decades. The adverse consequences such as poor biodegradability and accumulation in the fat tissue of mammals became apparent only late. From the early 1970s, many organochlorine compounds were banned, including the DDT.
There is an abundance of specific insecticides. The approved conventional preparations are mostly pyrethroids, phosphoric acid ester derivatives or chlorinated hydrocarbons. A distinction is made between agents with immediate effect (if the worms have already hatched) and those with immediate and permanent effects (if further hatching is to be expected). The so-called molting inhibitors (block molting) or molting accelerators intervene in the larval development with a hormone-like effect and lead to the death of the larvae. A subform are the ovicides (lat. Ovum = egg), with which those of the sex products (= eggs) are killed by insects or their development is inhibited. In the 2010s, neonicotinoids, which act on the nerve cells of insects, were blamed for being responsible for the global bee death. Even the smallest amounts cause lasting damage to bumblebees and honeybees. They are also contained in insect sprays.
In viticulture, insecticides are used, among other things weevil. grubs. locusts. mites. Rebstecher. Rhombenspanner. Springwurmwickler. grape and cicadas fought. As part of the Biological crop protection is completely on insecticides when Integrated crop protection waived if possible. Instead, the control takes place on a biological basis in the form of mushrooms. bacteria and virus, An example is the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, Furthermore, natural enemies like predatory mites used or the disrupter ( pheromones ) applied. See below Organic viticulture,