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drunkenness (GB)
borrachera (ES)
ivresse (F)
ebbrezza (I)
dronkenschap (N)

General term for an emotional state of exaggerated ecstasy or an intense happiness that lifts someone beyond his normal emotional state. Such a condition is caused inter alia by psychotropic substances. These are substances that influence the human psyche. Depending on the active ingredient, this is associated with disturbances of the state of consciousness, cognitive abilities, perception, affect and behavior. As a result, the intoxication by enjoyment of alcohol treated. Overconsumption of alcohol causes disinhibition, increased emotionality, memory inhibition, numbness and overconfidence. In early civilizations, excessive consumption of alcohol on certain occasions was a ritualized custom until it was completely consumed. Until the Middle Ages, excessive intoxication was considered normal. From the 16th century it was ostracized and from the 19th century increasingly as a disease ( alcoholism ).

Hand with handcuff and shot glass / drunk

Developmental stages / drunkenness

The state of intoxication is a state of arousal or twilight lasting for a few minutes, usually accompanied by a misunderstanding of the situation in the form of hallucinations and always leaving a complete or partial amnesia (loss of memory). In alcohol poisoning occurs first mental disinhibition, increased speech and movement urge with frequent transition to depression and aggression, which can increase up to the destructiveness. After the decay of intoxication, they often show up as hangover designated poisoning after-effects. Alcohol consumption leads in stages of well-being and feelings of happiness in extreme cases to full frenzy and can even end lethal. The stages of development in thousandth :

  • 0.3: start of the effect of the alcohol, legal limit in Germany
  • 0.5: clear feeling of warmth, cheery, legal limit in Austria
  • 0.8: clearly limited responsiveness, legal limit in Switzerland
  • 1.0: Concentration and coordination problems, first speech disorders
  • 1.5: strong drunkenness, loud talking
  • 1.8: stronger intoxication with disinhibition and unstable walking
  • 2.0: uncontrolled staggering, nausea, vomiting
  • 2,3: high intoxication with apathy and fatigue, amnesia (memory loss)
  • 2.5: full frenzy, from here there is danger to life
  • 3.0: you can no longer hold yourself up, loss of consciousness
  • 4.0: lethal dose

Compatibility of alcohol

The tolerability of alcohol, that is, from which amount of it enters a state of intoxication, depends on age, physical constitution, gender, type of person and the rate of drinking. Women and especially East Asians, indigenous peoples of America and Aboriginal Australia have less ADH, ALDH and other degradation enzymes and are drunk faster and longer. An entirely different criterion is the health-compatible or harmless amount of alcohol with regular (daily) enjoyment. This is stated differently in the relevant literature and varies considerably between 20 to 60 grams of alcohol daily (see under health ). Alcohol has high nutritional value, around 95% are converted into energy.

The alcohol consumed goes first from the stomach (20%) and small intestine (80%) into the bloodstream and then into the body tissue (resorption). The division depends on the amount of blood (about 5 to 7l) and the body size or body area, the more extensive, the better the alcohol is distributed. However, fatty tissue hardly absorbs alcohol. Therefore, in a tall, lean person alcohol is more distributed and there is relatively less concentration of alcohol in the blood compared to a small, fat person. The intake is relatively slow and is (depending on the stomach contents) completed only one to two hours after drinking. The calculation of the alcohol level is below Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAK).

Intoxication as therapy

Many 18 th and 19 th century scientists studied intoxication as a therapy, and especially wine was considered to be the ideal beverage to reach this euphoric state, but society was always presupposed (excessive drinking alone is evidence of possible alcohol dependence). , The German naturalist Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) was also concerned with his theory of the monadic soul and its inability to perceive the "subcritical" movements of the environment while awake. Only the slight intoxication sharpens the senses and expands the sensual horizon of experience. The US psycho-pharmacologist Ronald K. Siegel writes in the book " intoxicated drugs in animals and humans" that intoxication as the fourth instinct as well as sex, hunger and thirst can ever be suppressed .

The famous Greek philosopher Kostis Papajorgis (b. 1940) develops a philosophy of passion for the delirium from Homer to Baudelaire and Dostoyevsky to Jack London in the essay "The Intoxication - A Philosophical Aperitif". Far from defending the stupefaction of everyday worries or a lumbering society, Papajorgis reports on the true intoxication, the secret of which lies in "renouncing sovereignty over oneself" and which is the privilege of noble or vulgar souls with a tendency to self-destruction have. If you only drink water, you have something to hide (ex AMAZON).

It can not be emphasized enough on the health risks. The difference between modest Weingenuss and Alcohol Abuse describes an essay by the Austrian poet Peter Rosegger (1843-1918). Which quantities of alcohol are probably not harmful to health, is under health explains where further information and references to keywords are contained.

Terms for excessive consumption of alcohol

Drinking is colloquially the most common name (someone "brews" or "drinks") for excessive consumption of alcohol, or "drunkard" for one alcoholic, Besides "drunkards" there are many more imaginative names like Becherant, Bsuf, Juicer, drunkard, drunk nose, swallower, swallow woodpecker, schnapps thrush, schnapps nose, suet, suffkopp, drunkard, drunkard, drunkard, checher, winegrower and drinker.

There are as many names for overconsumption as "he (she) drinks so much that it could drive a mill wheel" or "drink like a brushbinder (abbot, well, canon, Franciscan, hole, cow, sponge, sink). Other terms are Ausbuxen. cups. Binge drinking. tootle. Piperln. Safteln, Drizzling, badgering (the "k" rather like "g"), Tschechern and carouse, For drunkenness these are for example one monkeys to have, Balla. fire. steam. Dampis. Dullijöh. fluke. banner. Fett'n. Fetz'n, Habemus, Hormel. Mugl, Intoxication, Schwammer, Dizziness, schwips. Pointed, Stibes, engraving, Stobax, boozing. Tschaggele and frenzy,

Depending on the amount consumed or degree of alcoholization, there are many hearty expressions such as bottled, drunken, stuffed, tipsy, aroused, angeickert, angeoffen, drunk, gedudelt, dizzy, intoxicated, tipsy, drunk, drunk, betüddelt, bezecht, blue (like a violet), blunt fat, bummtirlzua, eing'spritzt to have one in the boat, to have one in the crown, to have an inus, to have a stick, to have a seat, to have a list, to have a star, to be in delirium (ium), to drink one over thirst, fat (like field howitzer, like beach howitzer, like the russian earth), have loaded, groggy, grotto, hoe, over, illuminated, be in the jum, be in the oil, in the wave (Wölln), small fat, rotznagelfett, sway, biteful, stiff, blotto, tight, drunk, drunk, full (to the gills, like a bucket, like a fire hydrant), weinselig, zach and zua,

The following is now about famous people who have "excellent" by excessive alcohol consumption and reported on unusual and whimsical events. It also mentions the most famous bans on alcohol, which has repeatedly tried to stem alcohol abuse in the population. These are in chronological order of the antiquity up to modern times:

Intoxication as ceremonial

In many ancient cultures intoxication was considered a purifying ceremonial with psychohygienic effect. Under the Achaemenid dynasty (559-331 BC) of the Persians, the intoxication was deliberately used to discuss and decide on important issues. They wanted to eliminate the ratio, promote creativity and informally discuss arguments and counter-arguments. The intoxication served the disinhibition. However, the decisions passed were then subjected to a critical examination in the sober state. In many religions was special Wine a sacred medium with which one mystically established a relationship with God or gods. In the Bible Wine is a common topic and plays in the Eucharist a central role.

Drinking (commisatio) in ancient Rome

The Roman poet Gaius Petronius (+66 AD) wrote the fragmented novel " Satyricon ". In it a moral portrait of ancient Rome in the 1st century is described. One of the episodes has become famous under "Cena Trimalchionis". It tells the story of a sumptuous feast of a very rich wine merchant with the typical dishes, drinks and table manners of the upper classes of the early imperial era. Such a meal (Cena) was usually followed by a "comissatio". This was a boisterous drinking party that lasted until dawn and often ended in a frenzy for most of those present.

Alcohol ban in Islam

An absolute ban on the consumption of alcoholic beverages was decided by the founder of the religion Mohammed (570 / 573-632) and consistently implemented. In contrast to other countries and cultures, this is the longest existing ban and has survived until today. In Islam, alcohol consumption, in addition to adultery, fornication, slander, heavy theft and murder, one of the capital crimes and this may even apply to the intake of dissolved in alcohol substances drugs.

To drink

This ritual is considered one of the oldest drinking customs of humanity. It was often associated with alcohol abuse. In the Middle Ages it was therefore banned in many countries. Especially from the church side, but also humanists were preached against the "devil alcohol". Martin Luther (1483-1546) spoke of the "devilish habit of overeating". In Austria ( Wien ), the excessive consumption of alcohol was opposed by the clergy Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709) with his treatise "Der Sauffnarr" (see below) and Johann quickly (1540-1612). He is still being cared for in student associations today. The "drinker" thereby makes a deceased or living person honor the dedication of the drink.

Execution by drowning in Madeira Pass

In 1478 George Plantaganet Duke of Clarence (1449-1478), the brother of the English King Edward IV (1442-1483), was condemned to death for conspiratorial activity, greed and violence. The choice of execution was left to him and he allegedly chose to die for drowning in one Malmsey (sweet version of the Madeira ) filled barrel in the tower. But maybe the "drowning" refers to the fact that he was a heavy drinker all his life. In any case, George Plantaganet was not killed by the decapitation, which at that time was common practice for the nobles, which proves a later exhumation.

Drinkable electors

From the 13th to the middle of the 18th century was Heidelberg Seat of the Palatine of the Rhine. 700,000 liters of wine were stored in the basement for the drink-resistant inhabitants of the castle. A wine pipe led from the cellar to the royal ballroom with room for 500 guests, with a hand pump, the wine was pumped up. Festivities required around 2,000 liters of wine a day. A diary entry of the drinking-resistant Elector Frederick IV of the Palatinate (1574-1610) of July 9, 1598 lives on in a drinking song: Angry rolled in bed, Elector Frederick of the Palatinate, against all etiquette, he roared out of his throat: How Yesterday I came to the nest? Am, it seems, again fully satisfied . He drank himself to death and died at the age of only 36. One of the later Count Palatine was Charles III. Philip of the Palatinate (1661-1742), who called a court jester Perkeo would have. He supposedly drank up to 30 liters of fluid daily, including tons of wine, due to illness.

Viennese drunkard

The inhabitants of Wien (Austria) have always been a happy and joyful people and fully occupied Heurigenlokale prove that this is valid today. In the 15th century, it was customary to enjoy considerable quantities of wine in the morning. This also applied to the women, and the well-known Viennese physician Heinrich von Neustadt complained that the Viennese women had lost their drink early in the morning and drifted even worse than the men. The Viennese were also attached to other bodily pleasures, and some contemporaries complained of "cravings and gluttony."

According to a document, 17 buckets of wine per head and year were allegedly drunk in medieval Wien . However, it is not known the exact volume of the unit of measurement (a bucket = 30 to 75 l). It should also be mentioned that wine was often watered. The spiritual Johann quickly (1540-1612) condemned in any case an excessive consumption of alcohol in his book in the chapter "Weinsucht - from the evil addiction of humor". At that time, in many countries, the age-old custom of Zutrinkens forbidden. Also the famous preacher Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709) ranted with haunting words from the church pulpit against the bad habit of "drinking". About drunkenness and alcoholism he wrote the epistle "Der Sauffnarr":

O drunkenness, you heavy addiction, bring some man into great fornication.
Of honor and goodness, in mockery and shame, of wife and child in foreign land.
From art and wisdom to great folly, from healthy bodies to great illness.
From joy and bliss to tears, from food and drink to starvation.
From peace and quiet in fear and distress, from long life to death.
From the Kingdom of God to eternal suffering, all this comes from drunkenness.
Consider your last hour well, so you will not get drunk.
No fools-bells are taken so clearly as the one who shows off the drunken fool,
so on all lanes makes obviously, so tomorrow over it discusses the whole parish.
That's rare - that's true - my darn fool!

Dear Augustin

A legendary and drinking-ready banal singer, bagpiper and impromptu poet from Wien , who fell into a plague pit in complete drunkenness, slept out his intoxication there and survived. Similar stories are also told from Cologne and London.

Prohibition in the USA

In the fight against alcohol abuse was in the United States introduced a ban on the sale, manufacture, importation and transport of alcoholic beverages (but not for consumption in and of themselves), which remained in force from 1920 to 1933. This measure is a significant example of the quite positive but ultimately failed attempt to bring about changes in a nation's behavior through prohibitions. It was defined as "intoxicating drink" or alcohol all beverages with more than 0.5% alcohol content. So, besides schnapps and wine, that was natural as well beer affected. It developed an illegal business for production and sales and thus a rapidly increasing crime. As a result, it came in the US to a total decline of viticulture for several decades and the bankruptcy of many wineries.

Prohibition in the USA - Photo of destruction of beer kegs

Alcohol as a stimulant

Among artists and writers, alcohol consumption was and is often used as a stimulant, stimulant for the purpose of inspiring the imagination. Examples include Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), the author of the first crime novel, and the painter Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890). The American author Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896-1940), who became known primarily for his novel "The Great Gatsby" and was himself an excessive drinker, said: "Drinking is the vice of the writer" . And even the "master of horror" Stephen King (* 1947) openly admits that he was a heavy alcoholic for a while. The German poet laureate Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), however, was an excellent wine connoisseur with an extensive wine cellar and enjoyed life almost every day one or two bottles of wine, but was not a drinker.

Guinness drinking record

The absolute record Excessive drinking in modern times holds the Spaniard Dionsio Sanchez. This has incredible 40 in just 59 minutes in 1955 pints (18.9 liters) drunk wine, which earned him an entry in the Guinness Book of Records. How he survived that or whether he survived that is not known.

Binge drinking

A popular term for the in the 1990s, first in England emerged among young people's excess culture of excessive drinking (binge = binge, drinking). Especially on weekends, alcohol is "consumed until it falls" or until it's full. In German-speaking countries, this is also referred to as "combat drinking", "binge drinking", drinking bacon "or" Komatrinken / Saufen ". Incidentally, the latter was voted the worst word in Austria in 2007. As a result of this self-destructive alcohol abuse, the risk of alcohol-related accidents, violence, suicides and illnesses increases.

Favorite wines from celebrities and Celebrity wineries

Many rulers, artists, actors, athletes and politicians were wine lovers and are in the wine Glossary described with their preferences. These include, among many others, the Egyptian pharaoh Tut-Ench-Amun (around 1350 BC), the composer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), the emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), US President Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) and the Austrian ruler Maria Theresa, A fad is that many celebrity, especially from the show industry, buy a winery.

Under the keyword Customs in viticulture is a list of relevant keywords related to rituals, festivities and customs "around the wine". See also below drinking culture,

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