General term for an emotional state of exaggerated ecstasy or an intense feeling of happiness that lifts someone beyond his normal emotional state. Such a condition is caused among other things by psychotropic substances. These are substances that influence the human psyche. Depending on the active ingredient, this is associated with disturbances of the state of consciousness, cognitive abilities, perception, affect and behavior. As a result, the intoxication by enjoyment of alcohol treated. Overconsumption of alcohol causes disinhibition, increased emotionality, memory inhibition, numbness and overconfidence. In early civilizations, excessive consumption of alcohol on certain occasions was a ritualized custom until it was completely consumed by drunkenness. Until the Middle Ages, excessive intoxication was considered normal. From the 16th century it was ostracized and from the 19th century increasingly as a disease ( alcoholism ).
The state of intoxication is a state of arousal or twilight lasting for a few minutes, usually accompanied by a misunderstanding of the situation in the form of hallucinations and always leaving a complete or partial amnesia (loss of memory). In the case of alcohol intoxication, mental disinhibition first occurs, an increased urge to speak and to move, with a frequent transition to depression and aggression, which can increase to the point of destructiveness. After the decay of intoxication, they often show up as hangover designated poisoning after-effects. Alcohol consumption leads in stages of well-being and feelings of happiness in extreme cases to complete frenzy and may even end in death. The stages of development in thousandth :
The tolerability of alcohol, that is, the amount of which it enters into a state of intoxication, depends on age, physical constitution, gender, type of person, and drinking speed. Women and especially East Asians, indigenous peoples of America and Aboriginal Australia have less ADH, ALDH and other degradation enzymes and are drunk faster and longer. An entirely different criterion is the health-compatible or harmless amount of alcohol with regular (daily) enjoyment. This is stated differently in the relevant literature and varies considerably between 20 to 60 grams of alcohol daily (see below health ). Alcohol has high nutritional value, around 95% are converted into energy.
The consumed alcohol goes first from the stomach (20%) and small intestine (80%) into the bloodstream and then into the body tissue (resorption). The division depends on the amount of blood (about 5 to 7l) and the body size or body area, the more extensive, the better the alcohol is distributed. However, fatty tissue hardly absorbs alcohol. Therefore, in a tall, lean person alcohol is more distributed and there is relatively less concentration of alcohol in the blood compared to a small, fat person. The intake is relatively slow and is (depending on the stomach contents) completed only one to two hours after drinking. The calculation of the alcohol level is below Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAK) described.
With the intoxication as therapy, many scientists of the 18th and 19th century and especially wine was considered as an ideal drink to get into this euphoric state, but always society was assumed (excessive drinking alone is evidence of possible alcohol dependence) , The German naturalist Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) was also concerned with his theory of the monadic soul and its inability to perceive the "subcritical" movements of the environment while awake. Only the slight intoxication sharpens the senses and expands the sensual horizon of experience. The US psycho-pharmacologist Ronald K. Siegel writes in the book " intoxicated drugs in animals and humans" that intoxication as the fourth impulse as well as sex, hunger and thirst can ever be suppressed .
The famous Greek philosopher Kostis Papajorgis (* 1940) develops a philosophy of passion for the delirium from Homer to Baudelaire and Dostoyevsky to Jack London in the essay "The Intoxication - A Philosophical Aperitif". Far from defending the stupefaction of everyday worries or a lumbering society, Papajorgis reports on the true intoxication, the secret of which lies in "renouncing sovereignty over oneself," and which is the privilege of noble or vulgar souls with a tendency to self-destruction have. Those who only drink water have something to hide (ex AMAZON).
However, it can not be emphasized enough on the health risks. The difference between modest Weingenuss and Alcohol Abuse describes an essay by the Austrian poet Peter Rosegger (1843-1918). Which amounts of alcohol are probably not harmful to health, is under health explains where further information and references to keywords are included.
Drinking is colloquially the most common name (someone "brews" or "drinks") for excessive consumption of alcohol, or "drunkard" for one alcoholic, Besides "drunkard" there are many more imaginative names like Becherant, Bsuf, Juicer, drunkard, drunk nose, swallower, swallow woodpecker, schnapps thrush, schnapps nose, sweetmeat, drunkard, drunkard, drunkard, drunkard, checher, winegrower and drinker.
There are as many names for excessive consumption as "he (she) drinks so much that it could drive a mill wheel" or "drink like a brushbinder (abbot, well, canon, Franciscan, hole, cow, sponge, sink). Other terms are Ausbuxen. cups. Binge drinking. tootle. Piperln. Safteln, Drizzling, badgering (the "k" rather like "g"), Tschechern and carouse, For drunkenness these are for example one monkeys to have, Balla. fire. steam. Dampis. Dullijöh. fluke. banner. Fett'n. Fetz'n, Habemus, Hormel. Mugl, Intoxication, Schwammer, Dizziness, schwips. Pointed, Stibes, engraving, Stobax, boozing. Tschaggele and frenzy,
Depending on the amount consumed or degree of alcoholization, there are many hearty expressions such as bottled, drunken, stuffed, tipsy, frizzy, angeickert, angeoffen, drunk, bedaubelt, dizzy, intoxicated, tipsy, drunk, drunk, betüddelt, bezecht, blue (like a violet), blunt fat, bummtirlzua, eing'spritzt to have one in the boat, to have one in the crown, to have an inus, to have a pasture, to have a seat, to have a list, to have a star, to be in delirium (ium), to drink one over thirst, fat (like field howitzer, like beach howitzer, like the russian earth), have loaded groggy, grotto full, hoe, over, illuminated, be in the jum, be in the oil, in the wave (Wölln), knüllfett, rotznagelfett, swat, biteful, stiff, blotto, tight, drunk, drunk, full (to the gills, like a bucket, like a fire hydrant), weinselig, zach and zua,
The following is now about famous people who have "excellent" by excessive alcohol consumption and reported on unusual and whimsical events. It also mentions the most famous bans on alcohol, which have repeatedly tried to stem alcohol abuse in the population. These are in chronological order of the antiquity up to modern times:
In many ancient cultures intoxication was considered a purifying ceremonial with psychohygienic effect. Under the Achaemenid dynasty (559-331 BC) of the Persians, the intoxication was deliberately used to discuss and decide on important issues. They wanted to turn off the ratio, promote creativity and informally argue arguments and counter-arguments. The intoxication served the disinhibition. The decisions taken, however, were then subjected to a critical examination in the sober state. In many religions was special Wine a sacred medium with which one mystically established a relationship with God or gods. In the Bible Wine is a common topic and plays at the Eucharist a central role.
The Roman poet Gaius Petronius (+66 AD) wrote the fragmented novel " Satyricon ". In it a moral portrait of ancient Rome in the 1st century is described. One of the episodes has become famous under "Cena Trimalchionis". It tells the story of a sumptuous feast of a very rich wine merchant with the typical dishes, drinks and table manners of the upper classes of the early imperial era. Such a meal (Cena) was usually followed by a "comissatio". This was a boisterous drinking party that lasted until dawn and often ended with a rush of the majority.
An absolute ban on the consumption of alcoholic beverages was decided by the founder of the religion Mohammed (570 / 573-632) and consistently implemented. In contrast to other countries and cultures, this is the longest existing ban and is still valid today. In Islam, alcohol consumption, in addition to adultery, fornication, slander, heavy theft and murder, one of the capital crimes and this may even apply to the intake of dissolved in alcohol substances drugs. See detailed below alcohol ban,
This ritual is considered one of the oldest drinking customs of humanity. It was often associated with alcohol abuse. In the Middle Ages it was therefore banned in many countries. Especially from the church side, but also humanists were preached against the "devil alcohol". Martin Luther (1483-1546) spoke of the "devilish habit of overeating". In Austria ( Wien ), the excessive consumption of alcohol was opposed by the clergy Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709) with his treatise "The Sauffnarr "And Johann quickly (1540-1612). He is still being cared for in student relations today. The "drinker" thereby gives an honor to a deceased or living person by the dedication of the drink.
In 1478 George Plantaganet Duke of Clarence (1449-1478), the brother of the English King Edward IV (1442-1483), was condemned to death for conspiratorial activity, greed and violence. He was given the choice of execution, and he allegedly opted for death by drowning in one Malmsey (sweet version of the Madeira ) filled barrel in the tower. But maybe the "drowning" refers to the fact that he was a heavy drinker all his life. At any rate, George Plantaganet was not killed by the beheading of decapitators, which at that time was typical for nobles; this proves a later exhumation.
From the 13th to the middle of the 18th century was Heidelberg Seat of the Palatine of the Rhine. 700,000 liters of wine were stored in the cellar for the drink-resistant inhabitants of the castle. A wine pipe led from the cellar to the royal ballroom with room for 500 guests, with a hand pump, the wine was pumped up. Festivities required around 2,000 liters of wine a day. A diary entry of the drinking-hardy Elector Frederick IV of the Palatinate (1574-1610) of July 9, 1598 lives on in a drinking song: Angry rolled in bed, Elector Friedrich von der Pfalz, against all etiquette, he roared out of his throat: How Yesterday I came to the nest? Am, it seems, again fully satisfied . He drank himself to death and died at the age of only 36 years. One of the later Count Palatine was Charles III. Philip of the Palatinate (1661-1742), who called a court jester Perkeo would have. The latter allegedly drank up to 30 liters of fluid daily, including tons of wine, due to illness.
The inhabitants of Wien (Austria) have always been a happy and joyful people and fully occupied Heurigenlokale prove that this is valid today. In the 15th century it was customary to enjoy considerable quantities of wine in the morning. This also applied to the women, and the well-known Viennese physician Heinrich von Neustadt complained that the Viennese had already drunk their drink early in the morning and drifted even worse than the men. The Viennese were also attached to other bodily pleasures and some contemporaries complained of "craving and gluttony".
According to a document, 17 buckets of wine per head and year were allegedly drunk in medieval Wien . But it is not known the exact volume of the unit of measurement (a bucket = 30 to 75 l). It should also be mentioned that wine was often stretched with water. The spiritual Johann quickly (1540-1612) condemned in any case an excessive consumption of alcohol in his book in the chapter "Weinsucht - from the vicious addiction of Trunckenheit". At that time, in many countries, the ancient custom of Zutrinkens forbidden. Also the famous preacher Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709) thundered with haunting words from the church pulpit against the bad habit of "drinking". About drunkenness and alcoholism he wrote the epistle "Der Sauffnarr":
O drunkenness, you heavy addiction, bring some man into great fornication.
Of honor and good, in ridicule and shame, of wife and child in foreign land.
From art and wisdom to great folly, from healthy bodies to great illness.
From joy and bliss to tears, from food and drink to starvation.
From peace and quiet in fear and distress, from long life to death.
The eternal suffering of the Kingdom of God, all this comes from drunkenness.
Consider your last hour well, so you will not get drunk.
No fools-bells are taken so clearly as the one who shows off the drunken fool,
so on all lanes makes obviously, so tomorrow over it discusses the whole parish.
That's rare - that's true - my darn fool!
A legendary and drinking-ready banal singer, bagpiper and impromptu poet from Wien , who fell into a plague pit in complete drunkenness, then slept out his intoxication and survived. Similar stories are also told from Cologne and London. See under Dear Augustin,
In the fight against alcohol abuse was in the United States introduced a ban on the sale, manufacture, importation and transport of alcoholic beverages (but not for consumption in and of themselves), which remained in force from 1920 to 1933. This measure is a significant example of the quite positive but ultimately failed attempt to achieve changes in the behavior of a nation through prohibitions. It was defined as "intoxicating drink" or alcohol all beverages with more than 0.5% alcohol content were considered. So, besides schnapps and wine, that was natural as well beer affected. It developed an illegal business for production and sales and thus a rapidly increasing crime. As a result, it came in the US to a total decline of viticulture for several decades and the bankruptcy of many wineries. See under prohibition,
Among artists and writers, alcohol consumption was and is often used as a stimulant, stimulant for the purpose of inspiring the imagination. Examples include Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), the author of the first crime novel, and the painter Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890). The American author Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896-1940), who became known primarily for his novel "The Great Gatsby" and was himself an excessive drinker, said: "Drinking is the vice of the writer" . And even the "master of horror" Stephen King (* 1947) admits to have been for a while a heavy alcoholic. The German poet laureate Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), however, was indeed an excellent wine connoisseur with an extensive wine cellar and enjoyed life almost every day one or two bottles of wine, but was not a drinker.
The absolute record Excessive drinking in modern times holds the Spaniard Dionsio Sanchez. This has incredible 40 in just 59 minutes in 1955 pints (18.9 liters) drunk wine, which earned him an entry in the Guinness Book of Records. How he survived that or whether he survived that is not known.
In the 1990s, in England, the adolescent binge drinking (binge drinking) was the kind of competition that came to be known as binge drinking. Especially on weekends, alcohol is "consumed until it falls" or until it's full. In German-speaking countries, this is also referred to as "combat drinking", "binge drinking", betting drinking "or" Komatrinken / Saufen ". Incidentally, the latter was voted the worst word in Austria in 2007. As a result of this self-destructive alcohol abuse, the risk of alcohol-related accidents, violence, suicides and illnesses increases.
Many rulers, artists, actors, athletes and politicians were wine lovers and are in the wine Glossary described with their preferences. These include, among many others, the Egyptian pharaoh Tut-Ench-Amun (around 1350 BC), the composer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), the emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), US President Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) and the Austrian ruler Maria Theresa, A fad is that many celebrity, especially from the show industry, buy a winery.