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drunkenness (GB)
borrachera (ES)
ivresse (F)
ebbrezza (I)
dronkenschap (N)

General term for an emotional state of exaggerated ecstasy or an intense feeling of happiness that raises someone beyond their normal emotional state. Such a condition is caused, among other things, by psychotropic substances. These are active ingredients that affect the human psyche. Depending on the active ingredient, this is associated with disorders in the level of consciousness, cognitive abilities, perception, affect and behavior. As a result, the intoxication becomes by enjoying alcohol treated. When consumed excessively, alcohol causes disinhibition, increased emotionality, inhibition of thinking, numbness and overestimation of yourself. In early high cultures, excessive drinking to drunkenness was a ritualized custom on certain occasions. Excessive intoxication was considered normal until the Middle Ages. From the 16th century it was outlawed and from the 19th century it became increasingly a disease ( alcoholism ) considered.

Hand with handcuff and shot glass / drunk man

Levels of development / level of intoxication

The state of intoxication is a state of excitement or twilight that lasts for minutes to hours, which is usually accompanied by misunderstanding of the situation in the form of illusions and always leaves behind complete or partial amnesia (loss of memory). In the case of alcohol poisoning, mental disinhibition initially occurs, increased urge to speak and move with frequent transition to depression and aggression, which can increase to the point of being destructive. After the intoxication subsides often show up as Male cat designated poisoning aftermath. Alcohol consumption leads in stages from well-being and happiness in extreme cases to intoxication and can even be fatal. The stages of development in thousandth :

  • 0.3: Beginning of the effects of alcohol, legal limit in Germany
  • 0.5: clear feeling of warmth, enrichment, legal limit in Austria
  • 0.8: clearly limited responsiveness, legal limit in Switzerland
  • 1.0: Concentration and coordination problems, first language problems
  • 1.5: severe drunkenness, slurred speaking
  • 1.8: increased intoxication with disinhibition and swaying walking
  • 2.0: uncontrolled staggering, nausea, vomiting
  • 2,3: high intoxication with apathy and fatigue, amnesia (memory loss)
  • 2.5: Intoxication, from here there is danger to life
  • 3.0: you can no longer stand upright, loss of consciousness
  • 4.0: lethal dose

The emerging in the 19th century Temperance societies (Abstinence movements) tried to draw attention to the dangers of alcohol consumption by means of some representational means. The related cartoon "The development of a drunkard - From the first glass to the grave" dates from 1846:

Temperance - stages of alcoholism - from the first glass to the grave

Alcohol tolerance

The tolerability of alcohol, i.e. the amount from which it becomes intoxicated depends on age, physical constitution, gender, type of person and the drinking speed. Women and especially East Asians, Indigenous Peoples of America and Aboriginal Australians have less ADH, ALDH and other breakdown enzymes and are therefore drunk faster and longer. A completely different criterion is the alcohol-compatible or harmless amount of alcohol with regular (daily) consumption. This is stated differently in the relevant literature and varies considerably between 20 to 60 grams of alcohol per day (see under health ). Alcohol is high nutritional value, around 95% are converted into energy.

The alcohol consumed goes straight from the stomach (20%) and small intestine (80%) into the bloodstream and then into the body tissue (absorption). The distribution depends on the amount of blood (approx. 5 to 7l) and the body size or body area, the more extensive, the better the alcohol is distributed. However, fatty tissue can hardly absorb alcohol. Therefore, alcohol is distributed more in a tall, lean person and there is relatively less alcohol concentration in the blood compared to a small, fat person. The intake is relatively slow and (depending on the contents of the stomach) is only completed one to two hours after the end of drinking. The calculation of the alcohol level is below Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAK).

Intoxication as therapy

Many scientists of the 18th and 19th centuries dealt with the intoxication as therapy and wine in particular was considered to be the ideal drink to get into this euphoric state, but society was always assumed (excessive drinking alone is a sign of possible alcohol dependence) , The German naturalist Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) also dealt with this in his theory of the monadic soul and its inability to perceive the "subcritical" movements of the environment when awake. Only the light intoxication sharpens the senses and expands the sensory horizon of experience. The US psycho-pharmacologist Ronald K. Siegel writes in the book "Noise Drugs in Animals and Humans" that intoxication as the fourth drive, like sex, hunger and thirst, can never be suppressed .

The important Greek philosopher Kostis Papajorgis (* 1940) unfolds in the essay "The Rush - A Philosophical Aperitif" a philosophy of passion for delirium from Homer to Baudelaire and Dostoevsky to Jack London. Far from defending the anesthetic of everyday worries or a slurping society, Papajorgis reports on the real intoxication, the secret of which is “renouncing self-rule” and the privilege of the noble or ordinary souls who have a penchant for self-destruction have. Anyone who only drinks water has something to hide (ex AMAZON).

However, the health risks cannot be emphasized strongly enough. The difference between moderate Weingenuss and alcohol abuse is described in an essay by the Austrian poet Peter Rosegger (1843-1918). What amounts of alcohol are presumably not harmful to health is explained in health explains where further information and references to key words are included.

Terms for excessive alcohol consumption

Drinking is colloquially the most common term (someone "drinks" or "drinks") for excessive alcohol consumption, or "drunkard" for one alcoholic, In addition to "drunkard" there are many other imaginative terms such as Becherant, Bsuf, Juicer, drunkard, drinking nose, swallower, swallowing woodpecker, schnapps thrush, schnapps nose, suffler, Suffkopp, Trankler, drinker, drunkard, Czech, Weinbold and Zecher.

There are just as many names for excessive consumption as, for example, "he (she) drinks so much that it could drive a mill wheel" or "drinking like a brush binder (abbot, fountain, canon, Franciscan, hole, cow, sponge, sink). Other terms are Ausbuxen. cups. Binge drinking. tootle. Piperln. Safteln, Spooning, drinking (the "k" more like "g"), Tschechern and carouse, For drunkenness, for example, this is one monkeys to have, Balla. fire. steam. Dampis. Dullijöh. fluke. banner. Fett'n. Fetz'n Habemus Hormel. Mugl Intoxication Schwammer, Dizziness, schwips. Pointed Stibes Sting Stobax boozing. Tschaggele and frenzy,

Depending on the amount consumed or the degree of alcoholization, there are many hearty expressions such as bottled, alcoholized, stuffed, tipsy, fussed, fondled, drunk, drunk, petted, foggy, intoxicated, tipsy, drunk, drunk, tired, beckoned, blue (like a violet) blunt fat, bummtirlzua, eing'spritzt, have one in the boat, have one in the crown, have an intuse, have a stick, have a seat, have a list, have a star, be delirious (ium), drink one over thirst, fat (like field howitzer, like beach howitzer, like Russian Earth), groggy, grotty, hoe, over, illuminated, being in the Jum, being in the oil, in the wave (Wölln), sticky fat, snot nail fat, swat, bungey, stiff, blotto, tight, drunk, drunk, full (to the gills, like a bucket, like a hydrant), weinselig, quick and zua,

In the following, famous people who have "distinguished themselves" through excessive alcohol consumption and extraordinary and bizarre events are reported. It also mentions the best-known bans on alcohol, which have consistently attempted to contain alcohol abuse among the population. These are in chronological order from the antiquity up to modern times:

Intoxication as a ceremony

In many ancient cultures, intoxication was seen as a purifying ceremony with psycho-hygienic effects. Under the Achaimenid dynasty (559-331 BC) of the Persians, the intoxication was deliberately used to discuss and then decide on important questions. They wanted to turn off the ratio, promote creativity and discuss arguments and counter-arguments in a relaxed manner. The intoxication served disinhibition. However, the decisions taken were then subjected to a critical examination in a sober state. Was special in many religions Wine a sacred medium with which a relationship to God or to gods was established in a mystical way. In the Bible Wine is a common topic and plays at Eucharist a central role.

Drinking party (commisatio) in ancient Rome

The Roman poet Gajus Petronius (+66 AD) wrote the fragmentary novel " Satyricon ". It depicts a picture of the customs of ancient Rome in the 1st century. One of the episodes has become famous under "Cena Trimalchionis". It tells of a lavish banquet by an immensely rich wine dealer with the typical dishes, drinks and table manners of the upper class of the early imperial period. A meal like this (Cena) was usually followed by a “comissatio”. This was an exuberant drinking party that could drag on until dawn and often ended with a frenzy for most of those present.

alcohol ban in Islam

An absolute ban on the consumption of alcoholic beverages was decided by the founder of the religion Mohammed (570 / 573-632) and implemented consistently. In contrast to other countries and cultures, this is the long-standing ban and is still valid today. In Islam, alcohol consumption, along with adultery, fornication, defamation, serious theft and murder, is one of the capital crimes and this may even apply to the use of drugs dissolved in alcohol substances. See in detail under alcohol ban,

To drink

This ritual is considered to be one of the oldest drinking customs of mankind. It has often been associated with alcohol abuse. It was therefore banned in many countries in the Middle Ages. The church preached especially against the “devil alcohol”, but also humanists. Martin Luther (1483-1546) spoke of the "devilish habit of extravagant drinking". In Austria ( Wien ), the clergy fought excessive alcohol consumption Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709) with his tract “Der Sauffnarr “And Johann quickly (1540-1612). It is still maintained in student associations today. The “drinker” gives honor to a deceased or living person by dedicating the drink.

Execution by drowning in the Madeira barrel

In 1478, George Plantaganet Duke of Clarence (1449-1478), brother of King Edward IV of England (1442-1483), was sentenced to death for conspiracy, greed and violence. He was given the choice of execution and he allegedly chose to die by drowning in one Malmsey (sweet version of the Madeira ) filled barrel in the tower. However, the "drowning" may refer to the fact that he was a heavy drinker throughout his life. In any case, George Plantaganet was not killed with the beheading method of beheading that was customary for nobles at the time, as evidenced by later exhumation.

Drinkable electors

Was from the 13th to the middle of the 18th century Heidelberg Seat of the Palatine Counts of the Rhine. 700,000 liters of wine were stored in the cellar for the drink-resistant castle residents. A wine line led from the basement to the royal ballroom with space for 500 guests, and the wine was pumped up by a hand pump. For festivities, around 2,000 liters of wine were needed every day. A diary entry of the drinking-proof Elector Friedrich IV of the Palatinate (1574-1610) from July 9, 1598 lives on in a drinking song: Angrily rolling in bed, Elector Friedrich of the Palatinate, against all etiquette, he shouted at the top of his neck: How did I come to the nest yesterday? I seem to have been full again . He drank himself to death and died at the age of only 36. One of the later count palatine was Charles III. Philip of the Palatinate (1661-1742) who named a court jester Perkeo would have. Due to an illness, he drank up to 30 liters of liquid a day, including wine in bulk.

Viennese boozer

The residents of Wien (Austria) have always been a happy and sensual people and fully occupied Heurigenlokale prove that this is still valid today. In the 15th century, it was common to enjoy considerable amounts of wine in the morning. This was also true for women and the very well-known Viennese doctor Heinrich von Neustadt complained that the Viennese had already drunk early in the morning and were doing it worse than the men. The Viennese were also fond of other culinary delights, and some contemporaries complained of “eating and gluttony”.

According to a document, 17 buckets of wine were said to be drunk per person per year in medieval Wien . However, the exact volume of the unit of measurement is not known (a bucket = 30 to 75 l). It should also be mentioned that wine has often been stretched with water. The clergyman Johann quickly (1540-1612) condemned excessive alcohol consumption in his book in the chapter "Wine addiction - from the severe addiction of drunkenness". At that time, the ancient custom of Zutrinkens forbidden. Even the famous preacher Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709) ranted from the church pulpit with insistent words against the bad habit of "drinking". About drunkenness and alcoholism he wrote the epistle "The Drinker":

O drunkenness, you heavy addiction, bring some man into fornication.
Of honor and good, in mockery and shame, of women and children in foreign lands.
From art and wisdom to great folly, from healthy body to great illness.
From joy and bliss to the Jammer Valley, from food and drink in starvation.
From peace and quiet in fear and need, from long lives to death.
From the kingdom of God in eternal suffering, all of this comes from drunkenness.
Think about your last hour, so you won't get drunk.
No foolish jingles are noticed as the drunken fool performs,
so it is evident on all streets, so tomorrow the whole parish discusses it.
That is rare - that is true - my drunken fool!

minstrel Dear Augustin

A legendary benevolent singer, bagpiper and poet from Wien who drank into a plague pit, drank his intoxication there and survived. Similar stories are also told from Cologne and London. See under Dear Augustin,

prohibition in the USA

The fight against alcohol abuse was in the United States introduced a ban on the sale, manufacture, import and transportation of alcoholic beverages (but not for enjoyment in and of itself), which remained in force from 1920 to 1933. This measure is a significant example of the attempt to change the behavior of a nation through bans, which was meant to be positive but ultimately failed. It was defined that all beverages with an alcohol content of more than 0.5% were considered to be “intoxicating drinks” or alcohol. In addition to schnapps and wine, of course beer affected by it. An illegal business for production and distribution developed and with it a rapidly increasing crime. As a result, there was a total decline in viticulture in the United States for several decades and many wineries went bankrupt. See under prohibition,

Prohibition USA 1920-1933 - Destruction of beer barrels and slogan

Alcohol as a stimulant

It is not uncommon for artists and writers to use alcohol as a stimulating, stimulating means to stimulate the imagination. Examples are the first crime writer Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) and the painter Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890). The American author Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896-1940), best known for his novel "The Great Gatsby" and himself an excessive drinker, said: "Drinking is the writer's vice" . And the “master of horror” Stephen King (* 1947) openly admits that he was a serious alcoholic for a while. The German poet prince Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), on the other hand, was an excellent wine connoisseur with an extensive wine cellar and throughout his life enjoyed one or two bottles of wine almost every day, but was not a drinker.

Guinness drinking record

The absolute record the Spaniard Dionsio Sanchez keeps excessive drinking in modern times. In 1955 it had an incredible 40 in just 59 minutes pints (18.9 liters) drunk wine, which earned him an entry in the Guinness Book of World Records. How he survived this or whether he survived is not known.

Binge drinking

In England in the 1990s, the unculture of excessive drinking, known as binge drinking, first emerged as a competition among young people in England. Especially on weekends, alcohol is consumed "until you drop" or until you get completely intoxicated. In German-speaking countries, this is also known as "fighting drinking", "drinking intoxication", drinking drinking "or" drinking / drinking ". Incidentally, the latter was chosen as the 2007 unword in Austria. As a result of this self-destructive alcohol abuse, the risk of alcohol-related accidents, violence, suicides and illnesses increases.

Favorite wines from celebrities and Celebrity wineries

Many rulers, artists, actors, athletes and politicians were wine lovers and are in the wine Glossary described with their preferences. These include, among many others, the Egyptian Pharaoh Tut-Ench-Amun (around 1350 BC), the composer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), the emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) U.S. President Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) and the Austrian ruler Maria Theresa, One fad is that many celebrity, especially from the show industry, buy a winery.

Rausch - favorite wines from Tut-ench-Amun, Ludwig van Beethoven, Napoleon, Thomas Jefferson, Maria Theresia

Additional information

Under the keyword Customs in viticulture It contains a list of relevant keywords in connection with rituals, festivals and customs "all about wine". See also under drinking culture,

Handcuff and glass: by Лечение наркомании on Pixabay
drunk man: from Clker-Free-Vector-Images on Pixabay
Cartoon: By Nathaniel Currier , Public Domain, Link
Prohibition USA: Authentic History

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