A process that was discovered at the end of the 19th century, in which ions (Greek ion = migrating) - that is, particles such as atoms or molecules - are exchanged between two substances with the help of so-called ion exchangers. Such ion exchangers are high-molecular substances such as silicate minerals (zeolites) or synthetically produced resins that are able (without decaying) to release their own ions and take up others in a solution. This is used, for example, for water softening by: Calcium- and magnesium -Ions deprived of water and against sodium -Ions (of the ion exchanger) exchanged. A special form is the ion exchange chromatography,
An ion exchange is carried out at the winemaking for stabilization (removal of Weinstein ), in the filtration, For leavening or deacidification as well as for the production of RTK (rectified concentrated grape must). This is usually combined with osmosis (Reverse osmosis) practiced. An application in this regard can taste or that Aroma change the wine. The procedure was therefore according to EU Regulation is forbidden and is only permitted in exceptional cases subject to reporting requirements.
Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,