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Iran

Iran (GB)
Iran (N)
Irán (ES)
Iran (F)
Iran (I)
Irão (PO)

Much of Persia belonged to the antiquity to Mesopotamia, where among other things, the origin of the cultivated grapevine and viticulture is suspected. About the "invention of the wine" there is a beautiful legend in the time of the legendary Persian king Jamshid dating back to about 2,500 years BC Lived. After the Greek historian Herodotus (482-425 BC) and later confirmed by Strabo was under the Achaemenid dynasty (559-331 BC) of the intoxication deliberately used to judge important issues. The decisions taken had to be confirmed in the sober state. This was also vice versa, because decisions taken in a sober state were again confirmed in drunkenness. At that time, there were also fixed rations for the population depending on the occasion. For example, women who had given birth to a son received ten, while one daughter had only five liters of wine. Even the royal horses and camels were given beer and wine. The working population received fixed monthly rations of wine, men 20 to 30 and women 10 liters.

Despite the Muslim takeover in 641 and its concomitant alcohol ban Wine was still produced. The city of Shiraz near the ancient capital Persopolis was a wine center and had a reputation for finest wines in the Middle East. It is mistakenly considered the origin of the grape variety Syrah called. In the works of the poet Omar Khayyam (11th century) Wine plays an important role and the famous lyricist Hafiz (1324-1388) made in his verses the wine a declaration of love. In the 17th century, wine was bottled and exported to India. From the 17th to the 19th century, the wine from Shiraz was repeatedly praised by English and French travelers, for example, with "No part of the world has better wine than Shiraz" . The most commonly described was a sweet (for longer storage) or dry (for immediate enjoyment) aged white wine. After a documentation of an English traveler this was with maceration generated and a kind filtration made by linen bags. He writes that "only after five years does the wine develop a fine aroma and bouquet with a nutritious taste" .

After the exile of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919-1980) and the seizure of power by the ayatollah regime in 1979, the viticulture in Iran came very quickly to a standstill. In 2012, the vineyard was 226,000 hectares (see below Wine production volumes ). But not even one percent of this is used for wine production and almost exclusively table grapes and raisins produced. Wine as a basis for alcohol is mainly used for medical (medicines) and industrial purposes.

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