The supply with water in the right amount and at the best possible time is for the growth of vines an important condition and at the photosynthesis essential. Naturally this is done by the rainfall (Rain), the required amount is (depending on the climate ) usually between 500 and 750 millimeters annually. In ideal soil conditions but also larger amounts of precipitation can be absorbed. In the Portuguese area Vinho Verde For example, the amount of precipitation is 1,500 millimeters. In addition to the quantity also plays the time in the course of the growth cycle an important role.
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Important is the "correct" amount of water, too little moisture can water stress (also called drought stress) lead, with excessive rain again occurs too much vegetation (deciduous growth). Especially at the vintage Rain is undesirable and leads through the grape juice dilution to poor wine quality. In extreme cases, the so-called wet stress occurs, in which the berries swell or even burst and thereby oxidize the grape juice or even ferment in extreme cases. In addition, by too much moisture, the infestation by certain microorganisms such mushrooms or bacteria promoted. The moisture of the soil can be caused by the Tensiometer be measured.
Decisive for a good water balance is the ground Ideally, it is loose and deep, so that the roots spread out and dig deep into the soil, making them light nutrient and water can be absorbed. Important a balance between Water storage capacity and water discharge, Waterlogging is extremely damaging to the roots, especially after spring growth blossom to bad fruit set and Verrieseln, A good water drain can through greening Covering the floor with mulch or by artificial drainage (drainage). The second important criterion is the water storage capacity in the subsoil. These are the layers above the sedimentary or native rock, mostly denser and deeper.
The subsoil lies below the root layer of nutrients through which the roots pass. Clay, for example, is ideally suited because it holds the moisture in the ground evaporation (Evaporation of water and thus dehydration) counteracts and also passes the water only to a limited and metered extent to the roots. Unlike rain, however, dew does not contribute much to the water supply of the vine. Rather Tau promotes the development of mushrooms - mostly this is undesirable ( mildew. green rot. black rot ), but for the production of noble wines by the Botrytis (Noble rot) also beneficial. The latter is coming (the prime example is the French area Sauterne ) often near waters in front.
Artificial irrigation or irrigation of vineyards was already in use in ancient times, for example in the old Egypt, Today the process is in climatically hot countries with too little precipitation (maximum 300 mm) especially in dry summer months with risk of drought absolutely necessary. Even with newly planted vines that do not have one earnings deliver, this is common. Artificial irrigation, for example, is widely used in countries Egypt. Argentina. Azerbaijan. Australia. Chile. Israel. California. Peru and South Africa applied. In the EU this is prohibited under the existing regulations (except for young vines) with exceptional regulations and was one of the requirements for the entry of Spain and Portugal (previously prevalent here).
An artificial irrigation is done mainly to increase yields and is used in the production of table grapes. raisins or mass wine common. A common form is the so-called drip irrigation , in which water drops emerge from punctured spots at perforated points at fixed intervals from fixed hoses in the soil. In this technique also finds the so-called fertigation (Irrigation Fertilizer) application. A second form is the flooding , in which water is channeled between the vine rows and drains away. Special forms of irrigation are Partial rootzone drying (partial root drying) and Regulated deficit irrigation (regulated deficit irrigation)
All aids, works and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle one finds below Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,