The supply with water is in the right amount and at the best possible time for growth vines an important requirement and at the photosynthesis essential. This occurs naturally through the rainfall (Rain), the required amount is (depending on the climate ) usually between 500 and 750 millimeters per year. With ideal soil conditions, however, larger amounts of precipitation can be coped with. In the Portuguese area Vinho Verde for example, the amount of precipitation is 1,500 millimeters. In addition to the quantity, the time also plays out in the course of growth cycle an important role.
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The "right" amount of water is important, too little moisture can water stress (also called drought stress), with excessive rain, too much vegetation (leaf growth) occurs. Especially with the vintage rain is undesirable and leads to poor wine quality due to the dilution of grape juice. In extreme cases, the so-called wet stress occurs, in which the berries swell or even burst and as a result the grape juice can oxidize or even ferment in extreme cases. In addition, the infestation by certain microorganisms such as mushrooms or bacteria promoted. The moisture in the soil can be Tensiometer be measured.
It is crucial for a good water balance ground, which is ideally loose and deep, so that the roots spread out or dig deep into the ground, making them light nutrient and water can be absorbed. It is important to have a balanced relationship between Water storage capacity and water discharge, Waterlogging is extremely damaging to the roots, especially after growing in the spring, and results during blossom too bad fruit set and Verrieseln, A good drainage can be done by greening, Covering the floor with mulch or promoted by artificial drainage. The second important criterion is the water storage capacity in the subsoil. These are the mostly denser and lower layers lying above the sedimentary or mother rock.
The subsoil lies below the main layer with the nutrients traversed by the roots. Clay, for example, is ideal because it traps the moisture in the soil evaporation (Evaporation of the water and thus drying out) counteracts and also only passes the water to the roots to a limited and metered extent. In contrast to rain, however, dew does not contribute much to the water supply to the vine. Rather, dew promotes the development of fungi - this is usually undesirable ( mildew. green rot. black rot ), but for the production of noble sweet wines by the Botrytis (Noble rot) also an advantage. The latter is coming (the prime example is the French area Sauterne ) often close to waters in front.
Artificial irrigation or irrigation of vineyards was already in use in ancient times, for example in the old Egypt, Today, the process is hot in climatically hot countries with too little precipitation (maximum 300 mm), especially in dry summer months drought absolutely necessary. Even with newly planted vines that don't yet have one earnings deliver, this is common. For example, artificial irrigation is used widely in countries Egypt. Argentina. Azerbaijan. Australia. Chile. Israel. California. Peru and South Africa applied. In the EU this is prohibited according to the applicable regulations (except for young vines) with exception regulations and was one of the requirements when Spain and Portugal entered (previously widespread here).
Artificial irrigation is mainly used to increase yields and is in the production of table grapes. raisins or mass wine common. A common form is the so-called drip irrigation , in which water drops emerge from perforated places from hoses permanently installed in the ground at adjustable intervals. With this technique, the so-called fertigation (Irrigation fertilization) application. A second form is flooding , in which water is channeled from a channel between the rows of vines and seeps away. Special forms of irrigation are available Partial root zone drying (partial root drying) and regulated deficit irrigation (regulated deficit irrigation)
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,