Italy is one of the oldest wine-producing countries, the beginnings reach at least until 1,000 BC. Back. At that time, in central Italy, the Etruscan on which settled areas of the regions Abruzzo, Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria. The origin of Italian wine culture lies mainly in the Greek colonization, with the 10th century BC. Starting on the island of Sicily and Campania and Calabria, Greek viticulture was brought to the peninsula. The Greeks brought many of their grape varieties called the ideal for viticulture country Oinotria (Land of vines raised on stakes). Likewise, at that time, those who later became the great enemy Phoenicians (Punier), who built bases on Sicily and in the Mediterranean, exert an influence. From the 6th century BC Chr. Began a busy trade with the Celts in Gaul (France), which imported considerable quantities of wine from Upper and Central Italy.
The Romans also learned from all these peoples and led winemaking to high art. In the 3rd century BC BC, the grapevine was widely distributed and in the 1st century BC. Chr. Reached the wine culture a climax. The city Pompeii was until its destruction by the Vesuvius eruption 79 v. Chr. Chr. The wine trade center and main supplier for the capital Rome. The most famous ancient wines at that time were Caecubian. Falernian and Surrentine, The Romans established vineyards in the newly acquired provinces in today's countries France, Spain, Portugal, Germany and England. Wine became an import and export item, and the Romans were already producing wooden barrels, and they did so from the Celts (Gauls) had learned.
Many Roman authors wrote about the viticulture and wine culture z. T. very extensive works and thus allow a very accurate picture. The spectrum ranges from purely scientific (doctrinal) writings on poetic portrayals to descriptions of the dining and drinking culture, It should be emphasized Satyricon, a portrait of the Roman upper classes. The most important authors in chronological order are Cato the Elder (234-149 BC), Virgil (70-19 BC), Horace (65-8 BC), ovid (43 BC to 8 AD), Columella (1st half 1st cent.), Petronius (14-66) Pliny the Elder (23-79) and Palladius (4th century). Wine became the cultural carrier of the first order, in continuation of the Greek Dionysos cult enjoyed the wine god Bacchus great worship. The Romans were very creative in wine-making techniques. A specialty was that flavoring to make the wine tastier and more durable.
It was already pearling wine by storing the amphorae produced in cold spring water (fermentation interruption). In the first century AD, the focus was on the breeding of grape varieties and tried to find the most suitable vine for each soil. Many of today's autochthonous vines come from the then cultivated ancient grape varieties from. Due to the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 5th century and the turmoil of the migration of peoples, the wine culture was forgotten and became only by religious monasteries of the Roman Catholic church through production of the measuring wine maintained.
There was a great boom at the beginning of the Renaissance in the 14th century. In order to revive viticulture, Pope Paul III. (1468-1549) cast a spell over the French wine and provided detailed overviews of the Italian wine of the time. As early as 1716, under Grand Duke Cosimo III. (1642-1723) from the family of Medici In Tuscany, the wine areas for the Chianti set, Italy was thus one of the first countries with Origin designation, However, it was not until the 19th century when French types of wine such as Barolo, Brunello and Chianti created a new beginning. With over 2,000 different grape varieties, Italy has most of the world, not a few of them antique (Greek) origin. Of these, however, "only" 400 are officially approved. The Blend 2010 with the Top-45, with only Keltersorten (no table grapes) are included (ex Kym Anderson ):
|vine||colour||Synonyms / Italian name||hectare|
|Sangiovese||red||Brunello. Prugnolo gentile, Nielluccio||71619|
|Catarratto Bianco||White||CB Comune, CB Lucido||34794|
|Trebbiano Toscano||White||Trebbiano di Cesena, Tália, Ugni Blanc||22702|
|Barbera||red||B. Amaro, B. d'Asti, B. Dolce||20524|
|Glera||White||until 2009 Prosecco Teran Bijeli||18255|
|Pinot gris||White||Pinot Grigio||17281|
|Nero d'Avola||red||Calabrese, Niureddu Calavrisi||16595|
|Trebbiano Romagnolo||White||T. della Fiamma, T. di Romagna||15893|
|Tribidrag / Zinfandel||red||Primitivo||12234|
|Muscat Blanc||White||Moscato Bianco, Moscato Reale||11506|
|Trebbiano Giallo||White||Greco di Velletri, T. dei Castelli, T. di Spagna||10,664|
|Aglianico||red||Aglianico del Vulture||9910|
|Malvasia Bianca di Candia||White||M. Bianca, M. di Candia, M. Rossa||9231|
|Corvina Veronese||red||C. Comune, C. Gentile, C. Nostrana, Cruina||7477|
|Garnacha Tinta||red||Cannonau, Tai Rosso, Vernaccia Nera||6372|
|Cabernet Franc||red||Cabernet Frank||6314|
|Grillo||White||Ariddu, Riddu, Rossese Bianco||6295|
|Dolcetto||red||Dolcetto Nero, Nibièu, Nibiò, Ormeasco||6128|
|Croatina||red||Bonarda, Nebbiolo di Gattinara, Neretto||5684|
|Nebbiolo||red||Chiavennasca, N. del Piemonte, Picotèner||5536|
|Trebbiano d'Abruzzo||White||T. Abruzzese, T. Campolese, T. di Teramo||5091|
|Pinot Noir||red||Pinot Nero||5046|
|Lambrusco Salamino||red||Lambrusco Galassi, Lambrusco di Santa Croce||5003|
|Ancellotta||red||A. di Massenzatico, Ancellotti, Lancellotta||4343|
|Gaglioppo||red||G. di Cirò, Galloppo, Lacrima Nera||4214|
|Sauvignon Blanc||White||Pellegrina, Sauvignon Bianco||3744|
|Verdicchio Bianco||White||Trebbiano di Lugana, Trebbiano di Soave||3526|
|Pinot Blanc||White||Pinot Bianco||3086|
|Falanghina||White||F. Beneventana, F. Flegrea||3037|
|Cortese||White||Corteis, Cortese Bianca||2953|
|Sauvignonasse||White||Friulano, Tai, Tuchì (formerly Tocai Friulano)||2911|
|Nerello Mascalese||red||Mascalese Nera, Nerello Calabrese||2883|
|Lambrusco Grasparossa||red||Lambrusco di Castelvetro, Scorzamara||2726|
|Biancame||White||B. dalla Forcella, B. Maschio, B. Nostrano||2599|
|Nero di Troia||red||Somarello, Uva di Troia||2572|
In the early 1990s, the vineyard was still well over a million hectares, but due to subsidized clearing programs the European Union around 200,000 hectares were reduced. In 2012, 45.6 million hectoliters of wine were produced by 713,000 hectares. This puts Italy in the top spot worldwide and is always on edge France and Spain for the first place (see Wine production volumes ). Wine is cultivated from the north of the country (Trentino Alto Adige) to the deepest south (Sicily) and on the islands in the Mediterranean Sea. However, the DOC and DOCG zones account for only about one fifth of wine production. There are around two million grape growers, 340,000 cellars and 45,000 wine bottlers.
The soil is characterized by great diversity, but the climate has common influence despite local differences. The Alps protect against cold north winds, and the Apennines form a 1,500-kilometer weather divide from Piedmont in the north to Sicily in the south. The Mediterranean to the east and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west of the boot, as well as the numerous rivers and lakes have a decisive effect. The best regions have temperatures between 12 and 16 ° C, sufficient snow and rainfall in winter and warm to hot summers with sunshine until late in the fall. The vineyards are created from sea level up to 1,000 meters high. The 20 wine-growing regions agree with the political boundaries of the regions:
| REGION |
| REGION |
| CAPITAL |
|aosta Valley||Valle d'Aosta||Aosta||500|
|Basilicata||Basilicata or Lucania||Potenza||4000|
|Friuli-Venezia Giulia||Friuli-Venezia Giulia||Trieste||24,000|
|Sardinia||Sardegna former Tinakria||Cagliari||26,500|
|Trentino-Alto Adige||Trentino-Alto Adige||Trento||15,500|
Until after the Second World War Italy was more likely to be massed. From the 1960s, a profound change took place. The first area where the "Italian wine miracle" made itself felt was Chianti Classico in Tuscany, where a radical break with the past was made. Contributing to this were, among others, the famous wineries Antinori. Frescobaldi and Ricasoli in this region as well as later Ca 'del Bosco crucial in Lombardy. In the last third of the 20th century, Italian wine has changed extremely positively.
In 1963, a new wine law was created and the new quality designation "Denominazione di Origine Controllata" (DOC) introduced, which subsequently contributed significantly to the quality improvement. The first DOC wine was in 1966 Vernaccia di San Gimignano named. Only in 1980 followed the highest level "Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita" (DOCG). Further changes took place in 1992 with the one after the Minister of Agriculture Giovanni Goria (1943-1994) named "Goria law" with which the stage IGT was introduced.
Wine categories : In August 2009, the EU wine market regulations became valid for all member countries with fundamental changes to the wine names and quality levels. There are the following new names or quality levels (see also in detail under quality system ):
In April 2010, the new national wine law came into force, replacing the 1992 Decree No. 164. It was not content with the mere adaptation to the new EU law, but made a few substantive innovations. The old and new names may be used alternatively or together. This option is therefore available in order to avoid a "flattening" of the DOCG to the DOC, since both would be unified with the exclusive use of DOP and DOCG yes is still to make quality DOC. In summary, there are now stricter and clearer rules.
Vino : The old name "VdT" (Vino da Tavola) is now prohibited as in general in all EU member countries. There are wines without and with indication of the grape varieties and / or the vintage.
IGT (Indicazione Geografica Tipica) or IGP (Indicazione Geografica Protetta) :
The Vins need one analytical examination be subjected (a sensory Testing only for DOC / DOCG wines). The wine must by its nature have a typical, geographically determined characteristic. The requirements are below the DOC / DOCG or DOP level. The areas are usually much larger and sometimes cover entire regions. From the 1980s, the high quality of some IGT wines from Tuscany to the term Super-Tuscans, There are a total of 118 IGT / IGP wines with around 30% of production. An area can be an entire region such as Toscana include; the areas are each listed in the regions.
DOC (Denominazione di Origine Controllata) or DOP (Denominazione di Origine Protetta) :
These quality wines PDOs must be processed and upgraded from defined grape varieties grown in certain areas in accordance with established quantities and methods (see below). Some DOC zones produce only one wine, others several in different colors, grape varieties or species. As a German-speaking counterpart, the name QbA (quality wine from certain growing areas) is permitted for South Tyrolean wines. The 332 DOC wines account for around 25%. They are listed in the regions.
DOC (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) or DOP : These quality wines with controlled and guaranteed designation of origin represent the highest Italian "honorary class", which guarantees the genuineness of highly valued wines. The 74 DOCG wines account for only about 5% of production. For a complete list see below.
Grape Varieties : For DOC / DOCG or DOP wines (quality wines), only grape varieties authorized in the respective areas may be pressed. for IGT / IGP wines (land-based wines) varieties under observation are also permitted. They must be mentioned in the production regulations, which can also be done in percentage terms with a tolerance of 1% (previously only the composition in the vineyards was required). It is allowed too table grapes be vinified; the previous ban has been lifted.
Other requirements : In addition to grape varieties are the bottle shape, minimum maturation periods in barrels and bottle, minimum values for alcohol content. acid and total extract (Dry extract), as well colour and Aroma, Before the marketing takes place sensory and analytical test, It is also the indication of subzone (sottozona), commune (comune), hamlet (frazione), microzone (microzona), winery (Fattoria, Cascina or Podere) and the vineyard plot ( Vigna ) for wines of extraordinary quality possible. This will increase the importance of ancestry even more emphasized.
Additional quality designations : Three terms characterize quality wines that are above the standard. The term Classico designates traditional areas of origin or soil type and climatic higher quality or favored core zones within a DOC / DOCG or DOP area. For example, there is a DOCG area Chianti and a DOCG area Chianti Classico, With higher alcohol content, lower yield limits and / or longer maturation time are the terms Superiore and or Riserva allowed.
The DOCG wines are usually the absolute top of Italian wines. If wines have maintained their quality for at least five years, they will be granted DOC and, at the earliest, another five years, DOCG status. It can theoretically also be a single, outstanding one brand wine Get DOCG status if he "honors Italy", but has not done so yet. The very first wine classified as DOCG was in 1980 Vino Nobile di Montepulciano from Tuscany, followed in the same year by Barbaresco. Barolo and Brunello di Montalcino, It took a relatively long time, until 1987, as the first white wine from the Emilia-Romagna originating Albana di Romagna was crowned. The first sparkling or foaming wines were then 1994 Asti Spumante and Moscato d'Asti from Piedmont. The list of 74 DOCG:
|DOCG area (alternative name)||colour||main grape variety||region|
|Aglianico del Taburno||red||Aglianico||Campania|
|Aglianico del Vulture Superiore||red||Aglianico||Basilicata|
|Albana di Romagna||White||Albana||Emilia-Romagna|
|Alta Langa||white, rosé||Chardonnay, PN||Piedmont|
|Amarone della Valpolicella||red||Corvina, Corvinone||Veneto|
|Asti (Asti Spumante)||White||Moscato Bianco||Piedmont|
|Bagnoli Friularo (Friularo di Bagnoli)||red||Raboso Piave||Veneto|
|Barbera del Monferrato Superiore||red||Barbera||Piedmont|
|Brachetto d'Acqui (Acqui)||red||Brachetto||Piedmont|
|Brunello di Montalcino||red||Brunello||Tuscany|
|Cannelino di Frascati||White||Malvasia varieties||Lazio|
|Castel del Monte Bombino Nero||red||Bombino Nero||Apulia|
|Castel del Monte Nero di Troia Riserva||red||Nero di Troia||Apulia|
|Castel del Monte Rosso Riserva||red||Nero di Troia||Apulia|
|Castelli di Jesi Verdicchio Riserva||White||Verdicchio||Brands|
|Cerasuolo di Vittoria||red||Nero d'Avola||Sicily|
|Cesanese del Piglio||red||Cesanese||Lazio|
|Colli Asolani Prosecco||White||Glera||Veneto|
|Colli Bolognesi Classico Pignoletto||White||Pignoletto||Emilia-Romagna|
|Colli di Conegliano||White-red||various||Veneto|
|Colli Euganei Fior d'Arancio||White||Moscato||Veneto|
|Colli Orientali del Friuli Picolit||White||Picolit||Friuli|
|Conero (Rosso Conero Riserva)||red||Montepulciano||Brands|
|Dolcetto di Diano d'Alba||red||Dolcetto||Piedmont|
|Dolcetto di Ovada Superiore (Ovada)||red||Dolcetto||Piedmont|
|Elba Aleatico Passito (Aleatico P. dell'Elba)||red||Aleatico||Tuscany|
|Erbaluce di Caluso||White||Erbaluce||Friuli, Veneto|
|Fiano di Avellino||White||Fiano||Campania|
|Franciacorta||white, rosé||Chardonnay, PN||Lombardy|
|Frascati Superiore||White||Malvasia varieties||Lazio|
|Gavi (Cortese di Gavi, Gavi di Gavi)||White||Cortese||Piedmont|
|Greco di Tufo||White||Greco Bianco||Campania|
|Lison||White||Tai / Friulano||Friuli, Veneto|
|Montello Rosso||red||Merlot, Cab. Franc||Veneto|
|Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Colline Teramane||red||Montepulciano||Abruzzo|
|Morellino di Scansano||red||Morellino||Tuscany|
|Moscato d'Asti||White||Moscato Bianco||Piedmont|
|Moscato di Scanzo||red||Moscato di Scanzo||Lombardy|
|Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico||white, rosé||Pinot Noir||Lombardy|
|Piave Malanotte (Malanotte del Piave)||red||Raboso Piave||Veneto|
|Primitivo di Manduria Dolce Naturale||red||Primitivo||Apulia|
|Recioto della Valpolicella||red||Corvina, Rondinella||Veneto|
|Recioto di Gambellara||White||Garganega||Veneto|
|Recioto di Soave||White||Garganega||Veneto|
|Ruchè di Castagnole Monferrato||red||Ruchè||Piedmont|
|Sforzato di Valtellina (Sfursat)||red||Chiavennasca||Lombardy|
|Torgiano Rosso Riserva||red||Sangiovese||Umbria|
|Val di Cornia Rosso (Rosso della Val di C.)||red||Sangiovese, CS||Tuscany|
|Verdicchio di Matelica Riserva||White||Verdicchio||Brands|
|Vermentino di Gallura||White||Vermentino||Sardinia|
|Vernaccia di San Gimignano||White||Vernaccia||Tuscany|
|Vernaccia di Serrapetrona||red||Vernaccia Nera||Brands|
|Vino Nobile di Montepulciano||red||Sangiovese||Tuscany|
Influential Italian wine authors or wine critic include Burton Anderson (USA, but wrote almost exclusively about Italy), Daniele Cernilli, Giancarlo Gariglio, Fabio Giavedoni, Luigi Veronelli and Franco Ziliani, They work or publish in many wine magazines and wine guides such as Gambero Rosso. Slow Wine and Veronelli Guide,