Italy is one of the oldest wine-producing countries, the beginnings reach at least until 1,000 BC. Back. At that time, in central Italy, the Etruscan on which settled areas of the regions Abruzzo, Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria. The origin of Italian wine culture lies mainly in the Greek colonization, with the 10th century BC. Starting on the island of Sicily and Campania and Calabria, Greek viticulture was brought to the peninsula. The Greeks brought many of their grape varieties called the ideal for viticulture country Oinotria (Land of vines raised on stakes). Likewise, at that time, those who later became the great enemy Phoenicians (Punier), who built bases on Sicily and in the Mediterranean, exert an influence. From the 6th century BC Chr. Began a busy trade with the Celts in Gaul (France), which imported considerable quantities of wine from Upper and Central Italy.
The Romans also learned from all these peoples and led winemaking to high art. In the 3rd century BC BC, the grapevine was widely distributed and in the 1st century BC. Chr. Reached the wine culture a climax. The city Pompeii was until its destruction by the Vesuvius eruption 79 v. Chr. Chr. The wine trade center and main supplier for the capital Rome. The most famous ancient wines at that time were Caecubian. Falernian and Surrentine, The Romans established vineyards in the newly acquired provinces in today's countries France, Spain, Portugal, Germany and England. Wine became an import and export item, and the Romans were already producing wooden barrels, and they did so from the Celts (Gauls) had learned.
Many Roman authors wrote about the viticulture and wine culture z. T. very extensive works and thus allow a very accurate picture. The spectrum ranges from purely scientific (doctrinal) writings on poetic portrayals to descriptions of the dining and drinking culture, It should be emphasized Satyricon, a portrait of the Roman upper classes. The most important authors in chronological order are Cato the Elder (234-149 BC), Virgil (70-19 BC), Horace (65-8 BC), ovid (43 BC to 8 AD), Columella (1st half 1st cent.), Petronius (14-66) Pliny the Elder (23-79) and Palladius (4th century). Wine became the cultural carrier of the first order, in continuation of the Greek Dionysos cult enjoyed the wine god Bacchus great worship. The Romans were very creative in wine-making techniques. A specialty was that flavoring to make the wine tastier and more durable.
It was already pearling wine by storing the amphorae produced in cold spring water (fermentation interruption). In the first century AD, the focus was on the breeding of grape varieties and tried to find the most suitable vine for each soil. Many of today's autochthonous vines come from the then cultivated ancient grape varieties from. Due to the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 5th century and the turmoil of the migration of peoples, the wine culture was forgotten and became only by religious monasteries of the Roman Catholic church through production of the measuring wine maintained.
There was a great boom at the beginning of the Renaissance in the 14th century. In order to revive viticulture, Pope Paul III. (1468-1549) cast a spell over the French wine and provided detailed overviews of the Italian wine of the time. As early as 1716, under Grand Duke Cosimo III. (1642-1723) from the family of Medici In Tuscany, the wine areas for the Chianti set, Italy was thus one of the first countries with Origin designation, However, it was not until the 19th century when French types of wine such as Barolo, Brunello and Chianti created a new beginning. With over 2,000 different grape varieties, Italy has most of the world, not a few of them antique (Greek) origin. Of these, however, "only" 400 are officially approved. The Blend 2010 with the Top-45, with only Keltersorten (no table grapes) are included (ex Kym Anderson ):