The red grape variety comes from the United States, Synonyms are Black Ives, Bordo (Brazil), Grano d'Oro, Ives, Ives Madeira, Ives Seedling, Ives' Madeira Seedling and Kittredge (Australia). The exact origin has long been puzzled. The most common hypothesis assumes that it is open withered Seedling of the variety Hartford (Vitis labrusca) acts in 1840 from a Henry Ives near Cincinnati in the state Ohio has been discovered. A second is based on a site in West Hartford, the capital of Connecticut,
There are also several conjectures about genetic lineage. The first is a spontaneous cross between Isabella x Labrusca, the second from a cross of Wild vines of the species Labrusca x Aestivalis. Ives claimed that the variety comes from a seed from a European vinifera called Madeira. So they are genes from Vitis labrusca and maybe also from Vitis aestivalis and Vitis vinifera contain. Possibly exists in Brazil grown Bordo a relationship.
The medium-ripening vine is resistant to fungal diseases and is therefore ideal for hot and humid areas. However, she is very sensitive to it water stress and air pollution. It produces dark-colored, extremely bright red wines (in America "tooth stainers" = tooth stain) with distinctive Foxton, After prohibition (1920 to 1933) it was often used in sweet port wines, but also for the production of grape juice used. Today, the variety is sold in small quantities in the United States Arkansas. new York and Pennsylvania grown. In 2010 a vineyard area of 16 hectares was shown.