The red grape variety comes from the USA. Synonyms are Troya (Australia); Jacquez, Jacquet ( France ); Tintiglia ( Italy ); Lenoir ( Mexico ); Clarence, Deveraux, El Paso, French Grape, Jacques, Jaquez, July Cherry, Long Laliman, Longworth's Ohio, Alabama, Black El Paso, Black French, Blue French, Blue French Grape, Burgundy, Cigar Box Grape Mac Candless, Madeira, Segar Box, Sherry of the South, Springstein, Sumpter, Thurmond, Tintiglia ( United States ); Zakez, Zsake. It is probably a natural cross between the American species Vitis aestivalis and Vitis cinerea, as well as ev. an unknown European Vitis vinifera, The US botanist Thomas Volney Munson (1843-1913) ordered the hybrid later the species Vitis bourquina to.
The French-born vine grower Nicholas Herbemont (1771-1839) received the beginning of the 19th century seedlings of a vine of Isaac Lenoir, who lived in Horatio (Sumpter County, South Carolina ) lived. Herbemont selected these in his Rebgarten in Columbia (South Carolina) and named her for the time being as Lenoir (by the way, this had a few years earlier named after him lineage-like Herbemont discovered). He left many in 1828 cuttings in a cigar box (hence Cigar Box Grape) the lawyer Nicholas Longworth (1783-1863) in Cincinnati ( Ohio ), which later became one of the first major US wine producers. From there, a cutted to Natchez ( Mississippi ), where it was grown by a Spaniard named Jacques. Therefore, it was now marketed as Black Spanish or Jacquez.
The aforementioned Thomas V. Munson was at least concerned with the descent of Jacquez. From him also comes the often rumored statement that a cuttings in a cigar box of Madeira in the United States arrived. This false assumption of origin is probably due to the tradition of Herbemont, its grape varieties, because of their characteristics, names of well-known European growing areas such as Burgundy. Bordeaux and also Madeira assigned. Much more likely is the reverse way. Namely, that the sort of settlers returned from the USA to their homeland was brought to the island of Madeira.
In France became the sort in the fight against the phylloxera considered as an alternative (but is only moderately resistant). For this reason, she was in the late 1860s by Léopold Laliman (1817-1897) grown under the name Jaquet. Until 1935 she was even in the Châteauneuf-du-Pape authorized. After the occurrence of phylloxera she was also in Portugal grown on a large scale and was until the 1980s (then EU ban) produced in large quantities, red Madeira contain. In France, commercial cultivation was forbidden as early as 1934, as the wine was mistakenly harmful to health due to its high content methanol was assumed. However, the values are within the permitted limit.
In the department Ardèche the wine "Cuvée des vignes d'antan" is made of several hybrid varieties blended. The corresponding vineyards with mainly the Jacquez occupy here nearly 80 hectares of vineyards. The local association "Mémoire de la vigne" strives to cultivate this ancient cultural heritage. From marketing the wine is excluded by the EU hybrid ban. He was, however, from the club Slow Food recorded as a "passenger" of the "Ark of Taste". This makes it one of the foods to be protected and preserved from the hazards of industrial agriculture and the food industry.
The medium to late ripening vine is prone to black rot and real mildew, but resistant to powdery mildew and Pierce Disease, The latter makes it interesting for growing areas in the south of the United States, That's why they used to be found in large quantities in the Gulf States, especially in Texas cultivated under the name Lenoir or Black Spanish and was the basis for altar wine, Recently, however, only 36 hectares were expelled. In Brazil are planted with 2.252 hectares. Here she is mainly for jelly, grape juice and sweet red wines used. In Mexico she was represented on 80 hectares. The variety occupied in 2010 a total of 2,368 hectares.
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)