The red grape variety comes from the USA. Synonyms are Troya (Australia); Jacquez, Jacquet ( France ); Tintiglia ( Italy ); Lenoir ( Mexico ); Alabama, Black El Paso, Black July, Black Spanish, Blue French, Blue French Grape, Burgundy, Cigar Box Grape, Clarence, Deveraux, El Paso, French Grape, Jack, Jacques, Jaquez, July Cherry, Long Laliman, Longworth's Ohio, Mac Candless, Madeira, Segar Box, Sherry of the South, Springstein, Sumpter, Thurmond, Tintiglia ( United States ); Zakez, Zsake. It is believed to be a natural cross between the American species Vitis aestivalis and Vitis cinerea, and possibly an unknown European Vitis vinifera, The US botanist Thomas Volney Munson (1843-1913) ordered the hybrid later the species Vitis bourquina to.
The French vine grower Nicholas Herbemont (1771-1839) received in the early 19th century seedlings of a vine by Isaac Lenoir in Horatio (Sumpter County, South Carolina ) lived. Herbemont selected them in his vineyard in Columbia (South Carolina) and initially named them Lenoir (by the way, a few years earlier, he had the lineage-like one named after him) Herbemont ) Discovered. He left several in 1828 cuttings in a cigar box (hence cigar box grape) to the lawyer Nicholas Longworth (1783-1863) in Cincinnati ( Ohio ), who later became one of the first large-scale US wine producers. From there a cutting came to Natchez ( Mississippi ), where it was grown by a Spaniard named Jacques. Therefore, it was now marketed as Black Spanish or Jacquez.
The mentioned Thomas V. Munson in any case dealt with the lineage of Jacquez. From him also comes the often rumored statement that a cutting in a cigar box by Madeira in the United States arrived. This false assumption of origin is probably due to the custom of Herbemont, its grape varieties, due to their characteristics, names of well-known European growing areas such as Burgundy. Bordeaux and also also Madeira assigned. The opposite is much more likely. That the variety was brought to Madeira by settlers who had returned to their homeland from the United States.
In France became the variety in the fight against the phylloxera viewed as an alternative (but is only moderately resistant). For this reason it became Léopold's in the late 1860s Laliman (1817-1897) grown under the name Jaquet. Until 1935 she was even in the Châteauneuf-du-Pape authorized. After the appearance of the phylloxera disaster, she was also in Portugal cultivated on a large scale and was until the 1980s (then EU ban) in the red produced in large quantities Madeira contain. In France, commercial cultivation was prohibited as early as 1934, because the wine wrongly wrongly harmed health due to too high a proportion methanol was assumed. However, the values are within the permitted limit.
In the department Ardèche the wine "Cuvée des vignes d'antan" is made up of several hybrid varieties blended. The corresponding vineyards with mainly the Jacquez occupy almost 80 hectares of vineyards here. The locally based association "Mémoire de la vigne" takes care of this old cultural property. Wine is excluded from marketing due to the EU hybrid ban. However, he was from the club Slow food added as a "passenger" of the "ark of taste". This makes it one of the foods that are to be protected and preserved from the risks posed by industrial agriculture and the food industry.
The medium to late ripening vine is susceptible to black rot and real ones mildew, however resistant to powdery mildew and Pierce Disease, The latter makes them interesting for growing areas in the south of the United States, That is why it used to be in large quantities in the Gulf States, especially in Texas Cultivated under the name Lenoir or Black Spanish and was the basis for altar wine, Most recently, however, only 36 hectares were identified. In Brazil 2,252 hectares are planted. Here it is mainly used for jelly, grape juice and sweet red wines. In Mexico it was represented on 80 hectares. The variety occupied a total of 2,368 hectares in 2010.
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)