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Giappone (I)
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According to legend, in 718 Katsunuma ( Yamanashi on the main island of Honshu), Saint Gyoki planted vines given to him by Buddha Nyorai and built the Daizenji temple. In honor of the Buddha, Gyoki created a statue still standing in the temple called Budo Yakushi (Budo = wine, Yakushi = medical teacher). Wine has long been considered a medicinal medicine in Japan. Yamanashi is still Japan's winegrowing center with around 30 modern production plants. Buddhist monks spread vines all over the country, but the wines were mainly used as a vehicle for medicines.

Form of education Tanazukuri

The variety shown in the picture Koshu was allegedly discovered around 1186 at the foot of Mount Fujiyama, and is still the most popular variety in Japan today. In the 16th century, Portuguese Jesuit missionaries brought red wine (tintashu) as a gift. In 1569 the Shogun Oda Nobunaga held a much-celebrated wine festival for his samurai generals. At the beginning of the 17th century, the still used today pergola similar form of education Tanazukuri introduced, in which the vines were raised to the height of the man and the shoots run like a roof up to ten meters on all sides on support wires and be protected with straw mats in winter. This is said to be due to the high prevailing here humidity favored putrefaction can be prevented.

In the Meiji era (1868-1912), Japan began to open up to western ideas and techniques. This also affected the viticulture and in 1877 the winery Dainihon Yamanashi was founded, which was the forerunner of today's Mercian Katsunuma Winery, the largest producer with a fifth of the quantity. A year later, Masanari Takano and Ryuken Tsuchiya followed France sent to know about there viniculture and winemaking to get. After two years they came back and applied their knowledge. Although the business was closed soon after in 1886, it is considered the first beginning of Japanese viticulture.

At that time, wine was also tried autochthonous Varieties, mostly hybrids win with Asian genes. One from the Asian vine Yama Budou Red wine was pressed during the Phylloxera disaster even exported to Europe. The authorities have allowed foreign grape varieties to be imported into Japan for the first time. That was the beginning of modern Japanese viticulture. But an upswing did not begin until after the Second World War. From 1970 onwards, a wine boom, especially for red wines, began in connection with the World Exhibition in Japan french paradox contributed.

Vineyards in Katsunuma - Yamanashi

The main wine regions in Japan include Nagano, Okayama, Osaka, Yamagata and Yamanashi (congruent with the historical province of Kōshū) with the best area of Kofu Valley. They are at the same latitude as the Mediterranean, the climate however, is very different. There are very cold winters, wet rainy spring and autumn and summer with typhoons. The origin of the wines is on label declared by "Kokunai san" (domestic wine) or "Yunyu san" (imported barrel wine). But you can't really rely on that, because most Japanese wines (including top products) are blends from a small Japanese portion with wines from South America and Eastern Europe.

Wine production is dominated by a number of huge corporations, most of which source their grapes from many small winemakers, often with no more than half a hectare. The five largest Japanese manufacturers produce around three quarters of the total production. The main wineries include Asahi (Ste Neige), Chateau Lumiere, Grace Wine (Chūō Budōshu), Manns Wines Katsunuma Winery, Mercian Katsunuma Winery, Sapporo (Polaire) and Suntory (with Tomi-no-Oka Winery). Despite the existing wine boom, the Japanese national drink is still the sake (Rice wine).

Be in Japan American-. EU citizens, and Asians Vines cultured. Many of them are hybrids based on the American species Vitis labrusca, because in contrast to the European taste, the Japanese do not bother Foxton, There is also a lot of experimentation with crossings created in the country. Sweet white and rose wines are obtained from the Muscatel varieties. International varieties are also increasingly being cultivated. In 2012 the vineyard area was 19.00 hectares. The majority is used for the (also listed below) table grapes used. 800,000 hectoliters of wine were produced, but much more was imported (see also under Wine production volumes ). The Blend in 2010 (Kym Anderson ):

vine colour Synonyms or Japanese names hectare
Merlot red - 817
Chardonnay White - 602
Black Queen red Pokdum 469
Cabernet Sauvignon red - 469
Kerner White - 357
Zweigelt red - 231
Müller-Thurgau White - 172
Koshu White Koushuu 168
Yama Budou White Yamabudo 158
Niagara White - 128
Muscat Bailey A red - 103
Pinot Noir red - 64
Campbell Early red - 61
Delaware White - 51
Bacchus White - 25
Ryugan White Longyan? 24
Portland White - 12
Riesling White - 11
Dornfelder red - 5
Morio Muscat White - 2
Blaufränkisch red - ?
Cabernet Franc red - ?
Cabernet Lion red - ?
Cabernet Suntory red - ?
Concord red - ?
Gewurztraminer / Traminer White - ?
Ishihara vase red - ?
Komahikari White - ?
Koshu Sanjaku White Kosju Sanjaki, Koushuu Sanjaku ?
Koshu Semillon White - ?
Kyoho red Ju Feng, Kioho, Kyohou ?
Mills red - ?
Neo Muscat White - ?
Petit Manseng White - ?
Pinot Blanc White - ?
pione red - ?
Reichensteiner White - ?
Riesling Forte White - ?
Riesling Lion White - ?
Sauvignon Blanc White - ?
Schiava Grossa red - ?
Tannat red - ?
Villard Blanc White - ?
Villard Noir red - ?
Yama Sauvignon red - ?
Yama Semillon White - ?

Left: By Sophie Jacquin - Own work , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Right: By genta_hgr - Grape , CC BY 2.0 , link
Yamanashi: By Aw1805 - Own Work, CC BY-SA 4.0 , Link

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