See below clone,
Progeny produced by asexual reproduction from an organism (branch or rice). In humans, identical twins form a natural clone. In plants this is called vegetative propagation when new plants are regenerated from certain tissue parts of a starting plant. First of all, genetically identical living beings are created with heterogeneous properties that represent 100% identical copies (duplicates) of the initial type. By spontaneously arising and accumulating during the life phase mutations These copies differ slowly but steadily from the original vine in small steps. But only starting from a bigger one morphological and genetic modification scope one can speak of mutants. In the so-called somatic chimeric the mutations appear tissue-specific, that is, the outer epidermal cells may have one or more mutations, but these have not occurred in the inner cell layers or vice versa.
Such chimeras may even be the rule in the vine, because with the first divisions of the embryo, the principle dichotomy of the tissue layers in the epidermis and inner cell layers is determined to be deterministic forever. This dichotomy of the ground tissue is in each newly formed axillary bud already included, so that chimerism in the vegetative propagation over cuttings also be multiplied. On the other hand, in sexual reproduction two parent species are crossed, so that from each fertilized seed a new one vine which has half each of the newly combined genetic material of both parents. Thus, by targeted intersection breeding by gender, new grape varieties. However, somatic mutations and vegetative propagation give rise to clonal variants, mutants and chimeras.
The terms clone, mutant and clon mutant are commonly used synonymously in viticulture, but this is not correct, because a clone in the strictly scientific sense is an identical copy of the original, while a clone in the viticultural sense represents a mutated clone variant and not more than 100 % is identical to the starting plant. Clones of grape varieties are only addressed in practice as clones, if they can be distinguished in some visible or measurable individual features at least slightly from the initial type, that is already mutated. Such mutations occur spontaneously and often as budding mutations. Later after the expulsion they are going through the vegetative propagation the mutated shoots multiplied.
Klonmutant is understood to mean a clone (duplicate) of a cultivar that differs in some characteristics. Clonmutants are formed by spontaneous mutation of a fruit impulse, which was selected due to its deviating properties...