The Weingenuss has always played an important, ritual role in Jewish life at all festivals, with many examples in the Old Testament Bible, Moderate enjoyment is considered the believer health strongly recommended. On the Sabbath, wine is drunk at the beginning (Kiddush) and at the end (Havdala). At the beginning of the Sabbath (Friday evening) a cup of wine (kiddush cup) is filled four times during the celebration. First, the Father blesses the wine: Blessed are you, our Lord God, ruler of heaven and earth, to whom you have created the fruit of the vine. Then he takes a sip and passes it on to everyone. Wine is a symbol of joy that God gave the Sabbath to the Jewish people.
At the end of the Sabbath (Saturday evening), among other things, a cup of wine is poured in so fully that it overflows as a ritual. This is to sybolize or make clear the overflowing blessing of God for the Sabbath and the coming week. In this context, the term "Kiddush wine" (blessing wine) is often used. Kosher wine also has a special meaning at the Passover celebrated from the 15th to the 21st of Nisan (first month according to the "religious" calendar), which is celebrated in memory of the Israelites' departure from Egypt and thus liberation from slavery.
The Jewish laws for the preparation of food and beverages (Hebrew kashrut) are laid down in the Tanach (normative Bible texts, part of which is the Torah), in the Talmud (interpretation of rules in everyday life) and in rabbinical literature. Food and the dishes made from it are either “kosher” (Hebrew for “pure”, “suitable” or “suitable”) and therefore edible or “Trefe” (also “tame”) and therefore impure and therefore not allowed. The production of "Jájin kaschér" (kosher wine) is of course also subject to strict conditions compared to "Jájin stam" (normal wine). These refer not only to wines or sparkling wines, but also to vinegar and all products made from wine such as spirits,
The whole winemaking of the vintage to bottling is monitored by a rabbi. Only when the rabbi is sure that all the regulations mentioned below have been complied with can he sign the Kashrut certificate required for certification as a kosher wine. All activities may only be carried out by faithful, male Jews who keep the Sabbath. In individual cases, this even goes so far that no unauthorized person may enter the wine cellar and / or touch any winery equipment. However, since men are generally involved who do not keep the Sabbath day, there are exceptions.
The grapes may only be pressed for the first time four years after planting; the previous crops are destroyed. All vineyards in the biblical country must be fallow every seventh year (Sabbath year) (Schmittah). This is also avoided by selling or leasing the vineyard to a non-believer this year and then buying it back again. Organic fertilization is no longer permitted two months before the harvest. A mixed culture is prohibited; neither fruit nor vegetables may grow between the vines. Only materials used exclusively for kosher wines are allowed. These are to be cleaned according to special rites before use. That applies to mash car, Grape press, hoses and containers. The cleaning is done either by several baths in "living water" such as a river or stream, or by several boiling processes. This has no hygienic function, but is about ritual purity.
The feeding of yeasts is prohibited. The fermentation takes place exclusively spontaneous using the yeast from the vineyard contained on the berries. All substances of animal origin such as gelatin. casein and bovine blood are not permitted. For beautiful is only bentonite authorized. For the filtration only paper filters may be used. All means used, such as those cork must come from Israel. A bottle must not be filled with wine twice. After the kosher wine is finished, the “Maaser” ceremony is performed. One percent of the wine is poured out as a symbol of tithing for the high priests during the First and Second Temples. Another percent is given to the poor free of charge.
There are also strict regulations for the enjoyment of wine. An open wine that is touched or served by a Jew who does not keep the Sabbath, or by another believer, loses its kosher quality and is considered "contaminated". That is why kosher wine is only heated to 80 to 90 ° Celsius for a few minutes until the steam escapes and then quickly cooled. The kosher quality is pasteurization so to speak "conserved". A kosher wine with the additional name "Jájin Mewuschal" (boiled wine) can no longer become "impure".
With these wines treated in this way, it is not possible for an assumedly malicious person to deliberately and improperly contaminate the wine before serving. This regulation plays an important role, especially for serving businesses. This is intended to guarantee Jewish guests that they will be served kosher wine regardless of the religion of the host or his staff. As a devout Jew you can be sure of that. Due to the short heating, the effect of cooking on the original taste of the wine is kept as low as possible. However, they contain a little less aroma, tanning and coloring, the color is a little darker and there are also slight changes in taste.
Until the 1980s, a kosher wine was usually sweet, then a turn was made in accordance with the international trend dry aged wines. In Israel The larger wineries usually produce kosher wines. This is too complex for the smaller companies. One of the best known producers is that of Baron Edmond de Rothschild (1845-1934) founded winery Carmel, Kosher wine is also produced outside of Israel. In Europe, this is done in Germany, France (e.g. Chateau Valandraud ), Italy, Austria (e.g. by Gerhard Wohlmuth in southern Styria) and Hungary, as well as overseas in South Africa and in large quantities in the USA with the two leading companies Manischewitz and the Royal Wine Corporation with the "Herzog" brand. Outside of Israel, however, "only" the regulations described starting with the harvest apply. Wine also plays an important role in the Christian religion; see under Eucharist and altar wine,