Of the Weingenuss has always played a significant, ritual role in Jewish life at all festivals, with many examples in the Old Testament of the Bible, Moderate enjoyment is the believer as the health recommended. On the Sabbath, wine is drunk at the beginning (kiddush) and at the end (Havdala). At the beginning of the Sabbath (Friday evening), a cup of wine (kiddush cup) is filled four times during the celebration. First the Father speaks the blessing over the wine: Blessed are you, God our Lord, ruler of heaven and earth, who created the fruit of the vine. Then he takes a sip and passes it on to everyone. The wine is a symbol of the joy that God has given the Sabbath to the Jewish people.
At the end of the Sabbath (Saturday evening), among other things, a cup of wine is poured so thoroughly that it overflows. This is to symbolize the abundant blessing of God for the Sabbath and the coming week. In this context, the term "kiddush wine" (blessing wine) is often used. Also at the Passover, celebrated from the 15th to the 21st Nisan (first month after the "religious" calendar), which is celebrated in memory of the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt and thus liberation from slavery, kosher wine has a very special meaning.
The Jewish laws for the preparation of food and drink (Hebrew Kashrut) are in the Tanach (normative Bible texts, part of which is the Torah), set in the Talmud (interpretation of rules in everyday life) and in rabbinical literature. Food and the food made from it are either "kosher" (Hebrew for "pure", "fit" or "suitable") and therefore edible or "trefe" (also "tame") and thus impure and therefore not allowed. The production of "Jájin kaschér" (kosher wine) is of course also subject to strict conditions compared to "Jájin stam" (normal wine). These relate not only to wines or sparkling wines, but also on vinegar and all products made from wine, such as spirits,
The whole winemaking of the vintage to bottling is monitored by a rabbi. Only when the Rabbi is sure that all of the following rules have been observed can he sign the Kashrut certificate required for certification as a kosher wine. All activities may only be performed by devout male Jews who observe the Sabbath. In individual cases, this even goes so far as to prevent unauthorized persons from entering the wine cellar and / or from touching any cellar equipment. But since usually also men are involved who do not keep the Sabbath, there are exceptions.
The grapes may only be pressed for the first time four years after the vine has been planted; the crops before are destroyed. All vineyards in the biblical land must lie fallow every seventh year (sabbatical year) (Schmittah). This is also bypassed by selling or leasing the vineyard to a non-believer this year and then buying it back. Two months before grape harvesting, organic fertilization is prohibited. A mixed culture is prohibited, between the vines, neither fruit nor vegetables may grow. Only materials used for kosher wines are allowed. These must be cleaned before use for special rites. This applies to mash wagons, grape presses, hoses and containers. The cleaning is done either by several baths in "living water" such as river or stream, or by several Abkochvorgänge. This has no hygienic function, but it is about ritual purity.
The feeder of yeasts is prohibited. The fermentation takes place exclusively spontaneous by means of yeasts from the vineyard contained on the berries. All substances of animal origin such as gelatin. casein and bovine blood are inadmissible. For beautiful is only bentonite authorized. For the filtration Only paper filters may be used. All used means such as the cork must come from Israel. A bottle must not be filled twice with wine. After the completion of the kosher wine, the ceremony of the "Maaser" is performed. One percent of the wine is poured away as a symbol of the toe for the high priests during the time of the First and Second Temples. Another percent is given to poor people for free.
Also for the enjoyment of the wine there are strict regulations. An open wine that is touched or served by a Jew who does not keep the Sabbath or a believer loses his kosher quality and is considered "contaminated." Therefore, kosher wine is heated to 80 to 90 ° Celsius only for a few minutes until the steam escapes and then cooled down quickly. The kosher property is enhanced by these lightning pasteurization "conserved", so to speak. A kosher wine with the additional name "Jájin Mewuschal" (cooked wine) can not be "impure" anymore.
It is not possible for a malicious person to purposely and abusively contaminate the wine before serving it with these wines treated in this way. This regulation plays an essential role, especially at out-of-town enterprises. This is to guarantee Jewish guests that they will be served kosher wine, regardless of the religion of the landlord or his staff. As a devout Jew, you can be sure of that. By heating only briefly, the effect of cooking on the original taste of the wine is minimized. But there are a little less flavor, tannins and dyes included, the color is slightly darker and the taste changes slightly.
Until the 1980s, a kosher wine was usually sweet Then, according to the international trend, a turnaround was made dry matured wines. In Israel As a rule, the larger wineries produce kosher wines. For the smaller companies, this is too time-consuming. One of the most famous producers is that of Baron Edmond de Rothschild (1845-1934) founded winery Carmel, Kosher wine is also produced outside of Israel. In Europe, this is done in Germany, France (eg Château Valandraud ), Italy, Austria (eg from Gerhard Wohlmuth in Southern Styria) and Hungary, as well as overseas in South Africa and in large quantities in the USA with the two leading companies Manischewitz and the Royal Wine Corporation with the trademark "Duke". Outside of Israel, however, "only" the regulations described from the vintage apply. Wine also plays a major role in the Christian religion; see below Eucharist and altar wine,