The French vine grower Eugène Kuhlmann (1858-1932) created numerous in the first third of the 20th century at the Oberlin Institute in Colmar-Alsace new varieties, For several years he was also director at this institute. He consistently created French hybrids (European Vines x American Vines). The main purpose of his breeding activity was very good resistance against fungal diseases and frost, Kuhlmann-bred varieties are for example Etoile I (Kuhlmann 237-1), Etoile II (Kuhlmann 237-2), Grisette. Léon Millot (Kuhlmann 194-2), Lucie Kuhlmann (Kuhlmann 149-3), Maréchal Foch (Kuhlmann 188-2), Maréchal Joffre (Kuhlmann 187-1), Neron (Kuhlmann 296-1), Pinard (Kuhlmann 191-1) and Triomphe d'Alsace (Kuhlmann 319-1). Seven of them were Christian's Oberlin (1831-1915) created variety Goldriesling (1) crossing partner. Due to their resistance to fungi they are mainly associated with ecological viticulture become interesting again. Within the EU, they are banned for quality wine production. Most are also called table grapes used.