The Sumerians in Mesopotamia Roller seals used for labeling wine vessels. These were two to eight centimeters long and two centimeters thick stone cylinders. The inscription and the pictures on it could be unrolled on soft clay. In essence, this was information about the origin of the wine contained in the vessel. Small signs with information were given to the Greeks and Romans amphorae hanged or information carved directly into the amphorae. Such pendants made of various materials were also used in the Middle Ages wine vessels used. Of course, fraudulent intentions were easily possible by "moving around". Important information about wine like that vintage or a producer mark were also created using cork brand on the cork appropriate.
Labels in their current form were only introduced from the beginning of the 19th century with the advent of lithography (stone printing). However, widespread use was only possible when the problem of liability on the bottles was solved. One is considered one of the earliest specimens Johannisberger Castle of the year 1822, on which the castle with the surrounding vineyards is depicted.
At that time the first produced in England came bottles in roll form in use. Today, the label is the "birth certificate" for a wine with legally required and optional additional information. The most important information is on the main label, further information can be found on an additional neck and / or back label. Further information such as the producer is also on the cork respectively. shutter possible.
According to EU Regulation The product name is the essential part of the product information and the most important purpose is to provide the buyer with accurate and truthful information while avoiding misleading information. Certain font sizes and the size ratio are regulated for individual text parts. If no font size is specified, the general principle from the Wine labeling regulations, This means that the characters must be easy to read, indelible and large enough. The information must be provided in one or more official Community languages so that the end user can easily understand each of these information. Some EU countries require producers from abroad to provide certain information in their own language, which they have to take into account when exporting.
For a long time, the general principle within the EU was that everything that was not expressly permitted was prohibited. Commission Regulation No. 753/2002, which came into force in 2003, meant extensive liberalization. This also repealed this principle for still wines as it had for a long time for sparkling wines. There is now mandatory (mandatory) and optional (possible) information, with the optional differentiating between "information under certain conditions" and "other information".
The mandatory mandatory information on the label is:
Quality: The wine has to be wine, country wine or quality wine respectively. Prädikatswein to be declared. In this regard, the new wine names introduced in the EU from August 2009 apply (see details under quality system ). All wines must have one batch identification respectively. For quality wine / predicate wine, the Official test number (Germany) or State test number (Austria) appear, which is alternatively also considered as lot identification. In the case of predicate wines, the relevant predicate appears ( cabinet. choice. Beerenauslese. Trockenbeerenauslese. outbreak. Strohwein. Eiswein Etc.).
Origin: See the new regulations valid from August 2009 under quality system,
Grape variety : one vine may be given if this is at least 85% share (see also under unmixed ). A maximum of three grape varieties may be specified in descending order depending on the proportion. The wine must consist of 100% of the two or three specified grape varieties. If more than three are specified, this must not take place in the same field of vision with the mandatory information and the font size must not exceed 3 mm. The provisions of the wine grape varieties to be classified for each EU country, as well as the use of certain varieties for wines with indication of origin (country wine, quality wine) are in EU regulations regulated; see under Quality wine-grape varieties,
Sulfur dioxide : This substance can allergies trigger, therefore a quantity of more than 10 mg / l in wine this fact has been subject to labeling since November 25, 2005. The texts “Contains: Sulfur dioxide” or “Contains: sulfites “(However,“ Contains: SO2 ”is not allowed). In some countries, this has been the case overseas for some time. Incidentally, this (very low) limit is exceeded in almost all wines. See the permissible limit values for each wine type under sulphurous acid,
Health -related: The EU Regulation (No. 1924/2006) on nutritional and health-related information on food (Health Claims Regulation) came into force on July 1, 2007. For drinks with an alcohol content of more than 1.2% vol, any reference to health on the label and in statements classified as advertising is prohibited. The only exception is information that relates to a reduced alcohol content or nutritional value Respectively. This also applies diabetics wine and diabetic sparkling wine; this means that the previously possible text "Suitable for diabetics" is no longer allowed. For the labeling requirement of residues of allergenic substances see under allergy,
The other mandatory information is bottle content or nominal volume (for example 75 cl with the suffix "e" for verified), more available alcohol content (in% vol in full or half units or in degrees), as well as the name (company) of the bottler with country, municipality of the head office and actual place of filling.
The "optional information under certain conditions" is noted on the main label or on the additional label. However, countries have the right to make certain information mandatory. Examples are:
The "other optional information" are characteristic properties about odor and taste ( fruity. fresh. tangy, subtle acid etc.), consumption recommendations for storage, optimal wine temperature or matching Food, Information on the history of wine or winery, natural or technical conditions (area, climate. vintage ), Vineyard names ( individual layers. Rieden ) and explanations of terms (e.g. for ice wine).
Certain winemaking processes do not have to appear on the label, but must be indicated on the accompanying documents when transporting wine or wine products. For example, with an enriched wine, the growing zone B the code "B (1)" is used. The codes plus meaning:
The Château Mouton-Rothschild has had the labels designed annually by renowned contemporary artists since 1945 (see there). That was a role model for many other producers; see under artist label, All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous vinification methods and cellar techniques, as well as a list of the types of wine, sparkling wine and distillate regulated by wine are under winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,