In the antiquity The area was one of the cradles of wine culture (see also under Mesopotamia ). Part of it belonged to in the Bible described Canaan of the Israelites. The northern part was counting Phenicia, which also includes coastal sections of today Syria included. In the core area on the Mediterranean coast and also far out of it numerous phoenician city states developed. The most significant in today's borders of Lebanon were Berytos (Beirut), Byblos (Djebeil), Sidon (Sayda) and Tyros (Sur). The Phoenicians ruled here under temporary strong influence of Egypt and Assyria from the 3rd millennium until the conquest of Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) in 330 BC After excavations in Byblos there was already a winegrowing culture here 5,000 years ago. In Baalbek (now Heliopolis), now Lebanon's wine-growing center in the Bekaa Valley, the temple built in the 2nd century AD stands for the wine god Bacchus, Over the centuries, there has been an eventful history of ever-changing Christian and Islamic dominions.
To a limited extent, however, viticulture was always practiced in some areas, and even in the Middle Ages, the sweet wines from Tire and Sidon were very popular. In the 13th century the area belonged to the domain for a long time Venice and wine was shipped from here to many European countries. By the Ottoman conquest in the beginning of the 16th century and the alcohol ban The viticulture came to a complete halt. This was revived only by French colonists, as in the period 1920-1946, the country was French mandate territory. By the end of the 1970s, Lebanon had a very high demand for wine, especially among the Western-oriented Christian population, whose share is around half.
With the beginning of the civil war from the year 1975 but the consumption abruptly returned, and most of the vineyards were destroyed. Only the cult vineyard Château Musar remained in existence and only had to forego the harvest in 1976 and 1984. After the war, viticulture recovered again. In the 1990s, a lot of money was invested in the modernization of the wineries and meanwhile apply the wines of the two major Château-Musar challenger Château Kefraya and Château Ksara qualitatively as nearly equal. In 2012, the vineyard covered 14,000 hectares. Of this, 90,000 hectoliters of wine were obtained. There are also large quantities of brandy arrack, as raisins and table grapes produced.
The most important types of celeriac are the red ones introduced by the French Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan Noir ( mazuelo ) Cinsault, Grenache Noir ( Garnacha Tinta ), Mourvèdre ( Monastrell ) Merlot and Syrah, as well as the white ones Clairette. Sauvignon Blanc, Merwah ( Sémillon ), Obaideh ( Chardonnay ), Ugni Blanc ( Trebbiano Toscano ) and Viognier, There are also some autochthonous Vines. Most of the vineyards are located on the plateau of Ksara in the Bekaa Valley at an average altitude of 1,000 meters. Most vines grow as low shrubs. The climate is ideal for viticulture, because there are up to 300 sunny days a year, cool nights and sufficient precipitation, Well-known producers are Château Fakra. Château Kefraya. Château Ksara. Château Musar. Clos St. Thomas. Domaine Wardy, Héritage, Kouroum, Masaya and Nakad.