In ancient times brought Phoenicians, Greeks and Roman vines on the Iberian Peninsula. Under the long Moorish rule from the 8th to the 12th century, although the viticulture stagnated, came despite the alcohol ban not to stop. As in many other countries, they influenced Cistercian viticulture decisively, in the 12th century they founded more than 100 monasteries. King Dinis (1279-1325) promoted agriculture and wine-growing to such a great extent that with the proceeds a merchant fleet was built and thus the basis for the rise to world power was created. He was therefore nicknamed "Rei lavrador" (King of the peasants). From independence in 1385, developed a busy wine trade with England,
The most famous and famous wine in Portugal is undisputed port wine, Its great triumph began when in 1703 the Methuen Treaty Contract between England and Portugal. This provided for large tariff reductions for imports of Portuguese wines. Already in 1756 were by the famous Prime Minister Marquês de Pombal (1699-1782) arranged, precise demarcations for the Douro region established. This therefore counts beside Chianti the very first origin controlled Areas. A special role in port wine trading played in 1790 in postage opened Factory House in which British factors negotiated and concluded deals among themselves.
In the 19th century were through mildew and phylloxera most of Portugal's vineyards are destroyed. Only from 1930 it came to a reconstruction. After the end of the dictatorship in 1974, the transition from production began cheaper mass wines on quality products. Due to the climate, the land is ideal for viticulture, because the viniferous northern part of Portugal has plenty precipitation and long, nice summers. The floors are mostly granite and slate. Viticulture is an extremely important economic factor in Portugal, with around 15% of the population living on it. In 2012, were produced by 233,000 hectares of 6.32 million hectoliters of wine. To 30% white wines and 70% rosé and red wines are produced. Among the best known Portuguese wines are probably the dessert wines Madeira and port wine, as Vinho Verde, However, the rose wine created in 1942 Mateus from the company founded in the same year Sogrape and similar products like Lancers by the company Fonseca With 40% of the Portuguese export volume, this has already run out of time for a long time.
At over 50%, Portugal is the world's largest producer of cork Of which about half come from the province Alentejo, Another special feature are the countless native vines. In the "land of the 500 autochthonous grape varieties" these were formerly largely as Mixed set grown. The often same names or synonyms cause confusion, but be through DNA analysis more and more descent clarified. It was not until the 1980s, mainly due to EU provisions regarding quality wines began to create...