See below corkscrew,
Device (also corkscrew or corkscrew) for removing the cork from the bottleneck. The cork has prevailed as the most common bottle closure in Europe from the mid-17th century. Initially, the corks were not wholly driven into the neck of the bottle, so removing them was a bit easier. The first primitive devices were small, pointed ice spikes, with which the cork was often removed piecemeal. The named after the form T-corkscrew is considered the oldest and most common variant and consists only of a spiral, which is attached to the cross handle. The corkscrew was first mentioned in 1681, the English term "Corkscrew" was coined around 1720. Until then, "Worm" (worm) or "Bottlescrew" was common. If the spiral has a so-called "soul" as in the picture on the right (so that a match fits into the inner turn), this is called a helix. The soul prevents the cork from crumbling.
In the second half of the eighteenth century there were first bell corkscrews in which the process of drawing was supported by the use of a threaded rod force-saving. The Englishman Samuel Hershaw filed his patent in 1795. A small disc above the spiral stopped the screwing movement of the corkscrew into the cork and set the cork in rotation. The thereby reduced friction of the cork on the neck allows the gentle draft of the cork. An improved version was developed in 1802 by his compatriot Edward Thomason. His patent continued the rotation of the screwing and initiated via a second, opposite shaft thread the drawing process. In the variant shown on the right, made of wood, the spindle is turned into the cork with the upper cross handle. When fully tightened, the cork is pulled out through the thread using the lower cross handle.
From the scissors-corkscrew (also joint, limb or accordion corkscrew) there are countless variants. The first of its kind was patented in England in 1884 by Marshall Arthur Wier. Upgraded models of nickel-plated steel or brass were first...