The red grape variety comes from Spain. There are around 50 Synonyms, the most important are grouped alphabetically by country (other main names in bold) Criolla, Criolla 6, Criolla Chica , Criolla Peru, Uva Negra, Uva Negra Vino ( Argentina ); Negra Antigua, País , Uva Chica Negra, Uva del País, Uva Negra, Uva Tinta, Viña Blanca, Viña Negra ( Chile ); Creole Petite, Printanier Rouge ( France ); California, El Paso, Mission , Mission's Grape ( California ); Hariri, Hariri Noir ( Morocco ); El Paso, Misión ( Mexico ); Negra Corriente , Negra Corriente ICA, Negra Corriente Majes, Negra Corriente Tacna, Negra Peruana, Rosa del Perú ( Peru ); Listrão ( Madeira respectively. Portugal ); Almuñeco, Comun des las Palmas, Forastero Negro, Moscatel Negro, Palomina Negra ( Canary Islands respectively. Spain ).
The etymological meaning of "Listán" is unclear; the Portuguese “prieto” means “dark” or “black”. The origin (parenthood) of the variety is unknown, the parents may already be extinct. Despite numerous apparently indicative synonyms or morphological It must not be similar to the varieties Jacquez. Listán Negro or Negramoll be confused. It is also not a color mutation of the two white varieties Listán de Huelva or Palomino (with synonyms Listán Blanco, Listán Comun, Listan de Jerez), although with the latter a close genetic relationship is suspected.
Listán Prieto is one of the most significant leading varieties that in many countries South America, as in Mexico. California and New Mexico is grown under numerous different names. According to numerous DNA analysis are from probably natural crossings (probably in Argentina) between Listán Prieto x Muscat d'Alexandrie the sorts Black Prince. Cereza. Criolla Grande. Moscatel Amarillo. Pedro Giménez. Torrontés Riojano and Torrontés Sanjuanino emerged. These varieties therefore become Criolla group counted. She was also a parent of the varieties Jaén Tinto. perruno. Quebranta and Verdejo de Salamanca, A previously suspected relationship with the Italian Monica Nera turned out to be wrong.
The variety originating from Castile-La Mancha was discovered in 1513 by the agronomist Gabriel Alonso de Herrera (1470-1539) under the name Palomina Negra. Around 1540 the variety was brought to Mexico by Spanish Franciscan monks, where they founded several missions. The variety now called Misión became the indispensable one altar wine vinified. Whether it is the first European Vitis vinifera acted in Mexico is not certain, because this is also attributed to the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortez (1485-1547), who had appeared there some 20 years earlier and also brought vines. The vine came from Mexico only over 200 years later in 1769 through the Franciscan monk Junipero Serra (1713-1784) to California and was now called Mission.
In the middle of the sixteenth century it was introduced in rapid succession by Spanish colonists in Peru, Chile and Argentina and was the most important grape variety there until the 19th century before it was slowly replaced by the European varieties. In the mid-sixteenth century, it reached the Canary Islands (according to another reading from there to South America) and was confusingly called Moscatel Negro, although it is not related to any Muscat variant. In 1629 the Misión in the Rio Grande Valley in the south New Mexico grown by Catholic missionaries. It was the first successfully cultivated European variety in North America, because previous attempts were there phylloxera failed.
The vigorous and very productive vine is resistant to drought or drought but prone to Pierce Disease and root knot, Individual grapes can weigh up to four kilograms. The light red berries produce simple rosé or dark white wines that are suitable for mass consumption Tetra Paks. tube containers and large bottles are filled. These wines are often blended with bright red wines. However, the stocks are declining everywhere due to increasing quality requirements.
In Spain it was founded in the 19th century by the phylloxera almost eradicated. But it is still on the Canary Islands grown on around 30 hectares. In 1985, Chile still accounted for over 40% of the total area, today it is only around 4% with 3,869 hectares. There are further stocks in Argentina (423 ha) California (265 ha) and Peru (7 ha). The variety occupied a total of 4,564 hectares of vineyards in 2010 with an extremely falling trend (in 2000 there were 15,532 hectares). It achieved worldwide varieties ranking rank 116.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)