The red grape variety comes from Spain. There are around 50 Synonyms, the most important alphabetically grouped by country (other main names in bold) Criolla, Criolla 6, Criolla Chica , Criolla Peru, Uva Negra, Uva Negra Vino ( Argentina ); Negra Antigua, País , Uva Chica Negra, Uva del País, Uva Negra, Uva Tinta, Viña Blanca, Viña Negra ( Chile ); Creole Petite, Printanier Rouge ( France ); California, El Paso, Mission , Mission's Grape California ); Hariri ( Morocco ); El Paso, Misión ( Mexico ); Negra Corriente , Negra Corriente ICA, Negra Corriente Majes, Negra Corriente Tacna, Negra Peruana, Rosa del Perú ( Peru ); Listrão ( Madeira or. Portugal ); Comun des las Palmas, Forastero Negro, Moscatel Negro, Palomina Negra ( Canary Islands or. Spain ).
The etymological meaning of "Listán" is unclear; the Portuguese "prieto" means "dark" or "black". The parentage of the variety is unknown, possibly the parents are already extinct. Despite numerous seemingly indicative synonyms or morphological She may not share similarities with the varieties Jacquez. Listán Negro or Negramoll be confused. It is also not colored mutation the two white varieties Listán de Huelva or Palomino Listán Blanco, Listán Comun, Listan de Jerez), although with the latter a close genetic relationship is assumed.
Listán Prieto is one of the most significant leading varieties that in many countries South America, as in Mexico. California and New Mexico is grown under numerous different names. According to numerous DNA analysis are from probably natural crosses (probably in Argentina) between Listán Prieto x Muscat d'Alexandrie the sorts Black Prince. Cereza. Criolla Grande. Moscatel Amarillo. Pedro Giménez. TorrontÃ © Riojano and Torrontés Sanjuanino emerged. These varieties are therefore the Criolla group counted. In addition, she was a parent of the varieties Jaén Tinto. perruno. Quebranta and Verdejo de Salamanca, A previously suspected relationship with the Italian Monica Nera has turned out to be wrong.
The variety originating from Castile-La Mancha was already in 1513 by the agronomist Gabriel Alonso de Herrera (1470-1539) described under the name Palomina Negra. Around the year 1540, the species was brought to Mexico by Spanish Franciscan monks, where they founded several missions. From the now called Misión variety was the indispensable altar wine vinified. Whether it is the first European Vitis vinifera This is also attributed to the Spanish Conquistador Hernando Cortez (1485-1547), who had appeared there about 20 years earlier and had also brought vines. The vine did not reach Mexico until 1769 by the Franciscan monk, more than 200 years later Junipero Serra (1713-1784) to California and was called here now mission.
In the mid-sixteenth century, it was rapidly introduced by Spanish colonists in Peru, Chile and Argentina, where it became the most important grape until the 19th century, before slowly being replaced by European varieties. Then, in the mid-sixteenth century, she arrived in the Canary Islands (a different interpretation from there to South America) and was confusingly called Moscatel Negro, although she is not related to any Muscat variant. In 1629, the Misión was located in the Rio Grande Valley in the south New Mexico grown by Catholic missionaries. It was thus the first successfully cultivated European variety in North America, because earlier attempts were there at the phylloxera failed.
The vigorous and very productive vine is resistant to drought or drought but prone to Pierce Disease and root knot, Individual grapes reach a weight of up to four kilograms. The light red berries yield simple rosé or dark white wines, which are responsible for mass consumption in Tetra Paks. tube containers and large bottles are bottled. Often these wines are blended with colorful red wines. However, inventories are declining sharply everywhere due to rising quality standards.
In Spain It was in the 19th century by the phylloxera almost eradicated. But she will still be on the Canary Islands grown on about 30 hectares. In Chile in 1985, more than 40% of the total area, today it is only about 4% with 3,869 hectares. There are more stocks in Argentina (423 ha) California (265 ha) and Peru (7 ha). The variety occupied in 2010 a total of 4,564 hectares of vineyards with extremely decreasing trend (in 2000 there were 15,532 hectares). She reached it in the worldwide varieties ranking the rank 116.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)