The Reformer Martin Luther (1483-1546) joined a vows in 1505 following the strict mendicant order of the Augustinian Hermits. Two years later he was ordained a priest and in 1512 he was appointed Professor of Biblical Exegesis at the University of Wittenberg, which he held until his death. Luther denounced the then widespread indulgences, the repurchase of sins. On October 31, 1517 he wrote his famous 95 theses against the penitential practice of church (that he knocked this on the church door is probably just a legend).
In the end, he triggered (not intended by him) the reformation and division of the church. From the year 1519 escalated the relationship between him and the Catholic Church or the Pope Leo X (1475-1521). On December 10, 1520, he burnt the Bannandrohungs bull along with the church code and books of his opponents. After a report of the papal Legate Alexander Luther strengthened himself with a Blue Trollinger ( Schiava Grossa ) before his departure from the Reichstag in Worms, where on 18 April 1521 he rejected the revocation of his writings with the famous saying "Here I stand, I can not help but help God, Amen" and therefore the Reichsacht was pronounced.
In 1521, the Pope imposed a life-threatening excommunication on Luther. He escaped under the pseudonym "Junker Jörg" with the help of the Saxon Elector Friedrich III. (1463-1525) on the Wartburg and translated there in only ten months, the New Testament of the Bible in a popular Middle East German high-level language. Later, the Old Testament followed. Luther will be many Quotes in connection with wine awarded, although some of it became known only after his death, such as the most well-known saying, which was published only in 1775: "Who does not love wine, women and song, who remains a Thor for his life" . Others are: "Exhausted and old people hasty and quicker the wine, because the still strong body, young, without worries and free courage are" and "The wine is among all fruits the most noble in the whole world, the heart of man refreshed and pleased " . The song created by him in 1529 "A stronghold is our god" was said to have been created while enjoying a bottle of Niersteiner in Oppenheim.
The "Lutherstadt" Eisleben (Saxony-Anhalt) is his birth and death place. During his lifetime here was operated by the monasteries extensive viticulture with extensive vineyards. Today there are only more leftovers. Luther appreciated the local country wine. He rated the wine higher than that beer : "The wine is blessed and has the testimony in writing, the beer, on the other hand, is a human tradition" . He had great understanding for moderate enjoyment of wine. On the occasion of his niece's wedding in 1538 he remarked: "One should give the guests a good drink, that they become happy, because as the Scriptures say: The bread strengthens the heart of man, but the wine makes him happy" . But he had no understanding for the widespread drunkenness and warned in a table speech: "Suck, that the bad luck comes to you. They do not want to grow old, because the best part of people passes away through drunkenness " . His suggestion: "One should pool the money, each craft for itself, which one wants to drink, and lend in need to needy fellow craftsmen" .
Luther often received gifts in the form of food and wine. His patron prince Johann Friedrich I of Saxony (1503-1554) sent him a barrel in 1536 with about 400 liters. Likewise, a broadcast from the year 1543 is documented, whereby the prince apologized in a cover letter for the simple quality: "We would have liked to send you better, so he has grown to us but this time not better" . The Luther family also grew their own wine, they owned their own vineyard with at least 600 vines. For documentary evidence Luther ordered in 1544 by letter 600 vine piles for supporting the vines. In a letter to his servant, he instructs him that the wine must be removed in good time from the yeast into another barrel and this must be repeated several times. Due to the often contaminated water sources, beer and wine were everyday drinks, but Luther warned against too early enjoyment: "Old people should pour in wine, young children should drink milk and eight years ago they should not drink wine."
Luther vehemently advocated that the Lord's Supper should again be celebrated in its original form. Not only the priest, but also all the faithful have to pray at the Lord's Supper according to the mandate of Jesus ( altar wine ). At Luther's time, both the Catholic and Reformation churches generally agreed that only wine was permitted. It was only discussed whether it should be mixed with water. Luther, like the other reformers Hus and Calvin, always categorically refused and insisted on the original form. Triggered by the lack of wine in northern countries, the question arose whether wine could be replaced by other beverages (grape juice, milk, water). About it arose CSF dispute,
To the altar wine Luther had a very special relation to the "blood of Christ". There are two events witnessed by witnesses in which he prevented "the desecration of the holy blood of the Lord . " In 1542, at a fair in Wittenberg, a woman hit her mouth so hard with her chalice that some blood and wine was shed on her coat, her jacket and on a church chair. Luther licked the spilled blood in awe of the woman's coat. Subsequently, the chair was planed and the chips were burned together with the women's garments. On his last trip to Eisleben in February 1546, a few days before his death, Luther had to interrupt his journey in Halle, as the hall had overflowed due to bad weather. He held a mass in the church. The large number of communicants had tired him a lot and his trembling hand was causing some of the blessed wine to drip on the floor. Luther fell to his knees and sucked up the wine with his mouth so as not to trample him and thereby profane him.