Common name in Germany for raw brandy; see below distillation,
Nice Aristotle (384-322 BC), however, was unsuccessful in "liberating the spirit of wine from wine". It is not certain when this was first achieved, but there are descriptions from the 2nd century BC. The Roman author Pliny the Elder (23-79) assumed that there should be something flammable in the wine. The Aztecs in ancient Mexico mastered this art and made intoxicating drinks from agaves (see below pulque ). Tatars in the Gobi desert made the alcoholic drink "Kumyss" from mare's milk and distilled it to "Karakumyss" (milk brandy). When the Moors (Arabs) conquered Spain in the 8th century, they brought with them the art of distillation. This was mainly used in pharmacy and for the production of fragrant water. A script from 1150 describes the art of making "aqua ardens" (burning water) from wine. At this time the name "aqua vitae" (water of life) was in use.
At the beginning of the 13th century, it was possible to obtain up to 90% by repeated distillation (ten times or more) alcohol to create. The scholar Albertus Magnus (1193-1280) further developed the distillation apparatus. The Spanish doctor and scholar Arnaldus de Villanova (1240-1311) used his experience in the invention of today as Vin doux naturel named wine. From the beginning of the 14th century, the natural scientist and doctor Theophrastus Bombastus continued Paracelsus (1493-1541) used the term "spiritus vini" (wine spirit) for distillates and was later equated with the term alcohol. The term too spirits for the end products from a wide variety of starting materials.
Distillation is the physical process for the heating, evaporation and subsequent condensation (lat. Distillare = drain) to...