This fermentation technology is the oldest and still the most widespread method of preparing red wine, Usually it is first stemming to separate the berries from the grape skins. The berries are squeezed so that their juice can escape. In southern countries this is still the case pounding with bare feet used to gently break open the berries. This mixture of juice and pulp is called mash. The question of pure breeding or spontaneous fermentation plays a much smaller role than in White wine, since considerably more vineyard yeasts get into the mash with the skins. This means that a good fermentation process (fully fermented) is also possible using natural yeasts. Today's trend is going in the direction of one dye-rich Wine with the most harmonious tannins respectively. tannins to achieve.
Regardless of the technique, the one floating above must marc (Solids) are constantly mixed with the fermenting must or pushed in (French pigeage, English punch down) to achieve the extraction to reinforce. In the past, this was done in a conventional way by purely manual stirring using wooden sticks. However, mechanical methods such as overpumping the must on the pulp hat, turning the entire mash in a drum-shaped fermentation tank and using the pulp to push it down Rotofermenter or the Autovinifikation applied. The permanent contact of the mash with the liquid can also be achieved by sieves or the like built into the container. As a result, the pomace hat cannot rise and is constantly washed around. This is referred to as the "Heading Down System".
Depending on the desired type of wine, the mash fermentation takes place in different fermentation tanks. Depending on the fermentation tank, a distinction is made between open and closed mash fermentation. Traditional open mash fermentation can take place in fermentation tanks that are open at the top Wood. concrete or stainless steel respectively. Without mechanical devices, manually pushing the pomace hat two to three times a day can be very time-consuming. Due to the large surface area alcohol loss up to 1.5% vol arise. Also the yeasts reproduce faster, which does not have to be a disadvantage. Another problem is that hygiene, there microorganisms and foreign substances can reach the mash unhindered. By the increased oxygenation will the formation of film-forming yeasts and Acetobacter (Acetic acid bacteria) promoted.
These possible disadvantages can be largely avoided with a closed mash fermentation. The filling quantity is around 75% of the maximum possible capacity of the fermentation tank. The relatively big one headspace is required for the ascending pomace hat or effective mixing of the mash. Since the access to oxygen can be significantly reduced, a longer maceration time and thus a better extraction is possible. Another advantage is that these closed fermentation tanks can also be used as storage tanks. The corresponding fermentation tanks with the technical possibilities described above are of course more expensive and only economical from a certain size of company.
Often there is a longer maceration period before fermentation. The mash is cooled down considerably and the start of fermentation is delayed by a few days. From the start of fermentation, the first vesicles form on the mash after just a few hours, it “bubbles” after twelve hours and the full fermentation process starts after just one day. Regardless of the fermentation tank used, most red wines are fermented in a temperature-controlled manner; the lower the temperature, the longer the fermentation. In steel tanks, cooling is automated using appropriate devices. Cooling coils are used in open containers, or plastic bags with ice are hung in the tub. The fermentation temperature is usually between 25 and 30 ° Celsius. Over 35 to 40 ° Celsius can Gärfehlern lead, especially in connection with higher alcohol content,
The fermentation time depends on the desired wine type and is between a few days (such as the Beaujolais Nouveau and similar wines) and most often at two weeks (more substantial red wines), but also lasts up to four weeks (extract-rich red wines) and in rare cases even two months (extremely long-lived red wines). Depending on the fermentation time and temperature, the anthocyanins (Dyes) and tannins (Tannins) more or less intensively extracted from the berry shells, seeds and combs. Lower fermentation temperatures or shorter fermentation times result fruitier and species more typical, higher fermentation temperatures or longer fermentation times result in more vivid, tannin-stressed and more complex Red wines.
One in France especially in Burgundy and Bordeaux The common method is Saignée (bleeding), in which after a short period of standing must for the production of Rose is subtracted and as a side effect the remaining mash or the must concentrated becomes. After fermentation, there is often a further shelf life for further extraction. Does the wine have enough structure, it is removed from the mash (advance); if sugar is still present, fermentation continues. Now that happens Press the mash to separate the rest of the wine (wake).
For weaker-colored grape varieties such as Blaufränkisch. Pinot Noir. Gamay or Trollinger the not uncontroversial technique of mash heating (short-term heating) is used to extract more dyes. A special form is that Maceration carbonique (Carbonic acid mash), which at Beaujolais Nouveau is common. Other wine making processes are, for example Cryomaceration (Red wine) and Maceration (White wine). An old method at White wine was the addition of up to 20% mashed, destemmed grapes for fermentation. This leads to full-bodied wines and a reduction in acidity, but can also emphasize the tannins. Occasionally this is again like today. B. at Orange Wine applied.
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