Special procedure at Red wine production, Other names are carbon fermentation, carbonic acid, carbon dioxide, carbon or whole grape mashing or maceration, It is also called fermentation referred to because it starts during mashing. The procedure was discovered more or less by accident in France in 1934. A team of researchers examined the possibilities table grapes keep as fresh as possible over a longer period of time. The grapes were kept under a protective cover of carbon dioxide at 0 ° C. After two months they started to ferment. They were made into wine that was lighter, more fragrant and less tannic than the traditional one maceration, Is in a closed container carbon dioxide then a very special kind of fermentation takes place. It takes place without the influence of yeasts inside the berries. That is why it is often referred to as intracellular fermentation .
In this process, the anthocyanins (Dyes) of the shells peeled off inside. Up to 2% alcohol is formed in the berries. About a fifth of the sugar is consumed and the malic acid reduced to half. Different fabrics like acetaldehyde. amino acids. Acetic acid ethyl ester (Ethyl acetate) glycerin and methanol arise in noticeably larger quantities than with conventional mash fermentation, with glycerine up to ten times as much. The berries underneath burst due to the weight of the grapes and normal fermentation started in the must due to added yeast. The two processes can also run in parallel. Light and less tannic, fruity Wines designed for quick enjoyment.
There are different forms, which are used quite differently by the producers depending on the region. Usually the fermenter is not with destemmed, whole grapes filled. So they remain intact, the grape skeleton is not removed and the berries are not crushed beforehand. The fermentation tank must be free of oxygen, which is also achieved by pumping in carbon dioxide. The duration of the carbonic acid maceration varies, some winemakers prefer one to two days, others up to a week. As a rule of thumb, the ripe the grapes, the shorter the process. If the fermenting must that forms below is pumped up, the effect increases. in the Burgundy there is a modified variant in which you fill the fermentation tank halfway with whole grapes and fill it up with ground grapes.
After about three to seven days, the must is removed and the remaining mash is pressed. Then the two musts are mixed and fermentation continues. This brings out the taste and fragrance of the grapes, while tannins and acids are much milder. The carbonic acid mash is a must Beaujolais Nouveau and other Primeur wines. Also on the southern one Rhone and in Languedoc-Roussillon it applies. Often there is also a blend with normally fermented wines. In Australia it will be the Cab Mac generated. Even with the traditional maceration the grapes on the top go through this special fermentation. See also under Maceration semi-carbonique,
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