Special procedure in the Red wine production, Other designations include carbonation, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon or whole-grape maceration or maceration, She is also called fermentation referred because this already begins during the mashing. The procedure was discovered more or less by chance in France in 1934. A research team examined the possibilities table grapes Keep as fresh as possible over a longer period of time. The grapes were stored under a carbon dioxide protective gas envelope at 0 ° C. After two months, they began to ferment. They were made into wine that was lighter, more fragrant and less tannic than the traditional one maceration, Is in a closed container carbon dioxide present, then runs off a very special kind of fermentation. It takes place without the action of yeasts inside the berries. Therefore, it is often referred to as intracellular fermentation .
In this process, the anthocyanins (Dyes) of the shells peeled inward. Berries make up to 2% alcohol. About one fifth of the sugar is consumed and the malic acid reduced to half. Different fabrics like acetaldehyde. amino acids. Acetic acid ethyl ester (Ethyl acetate) glycerin and methanol occur in noticeably larger amounts than in the usual mash fermentation, in glycerol to even ten times the extent. Due to the weight of the grapes burst the lowest lying berries and added yeast now in the must the normal fermentation. The two processes can, however, already run parallel. The result is light and less tannic, fruity Wines that are intended for quick enjoyment.
There are different forms that are applied quite differently by the producers depending on the region. Normally, the fermentation tank is not with destemmed, whole grapes filled. They remain intact, the grape structure is not removed and the berries are not crushed before. The fermentation tank must be free of oxygen, which is achieved by pumping in carbon dioxide. The duration of the carbonic maceration is different, some winemakers prefer one to two days, others again up to a week. As a rule of thumb, the riper the grapes, the shorter the process. If the fermenting must formed at the bottom is pumped up, the effect increases. in the Burgundy There is a modified version, in which one fills the fermentation tank up to half with whole grapes and filled with ground grapes.
After about three to seven days, the must is removed and the remaining mash is pressed. Then the two musts are mixed and the fermentation continues. As a result, the taste and aroma of the grapes are brought to bear, while tannins and acids are much milder. Obligat is the carbonic maceration when Beaujolais Nouveau and other primeur wines. Also on the southern Rhone and in Languedoc-Roussillon she finds application. Often there is also a blend of normally fermented wines. In Australia it will be the Cab Mac generated. Even with the traditional maceration the grapes at the top go through this special fermentation. See also under Macération semi-carbonique,
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