A fermentation technique used in France, with one part of the grapes (usually about half) one Macération carbonique (Carbonic maceration) is started. After that, a normal alcoholic fermentation started by adding conventionally de-stemmed, mashed grapes. The resulting fermentation carbonic acid then displaces the oxygen upwards. In the past, most of the red wines were probably made, all the grapes - without stemming - Put in several stages in a fermentation tank. Im exiting by the weight grape then put one in the intact berries spontaneous fermentation A and the exiting carbon dioxide causes the usual effect of the Macération carbonique.