See below finishing,
Designation (also grafting, copulation, furs) for the artificial, vegetative propagation of woody plants. Most commonly, this is common in rose and fruit varieties. In principle, it is a transplant of a plant part ( scion ) on the root part of another plant ( document ). You can also use the process as Clone denote, as originate from the original plants genetically identical new plants. This technique was already in the antiquity especially known for fruit and olive varieties and is used by Cato the Elder (234-149 BC) also mentioned in the case of vines. The main objective is the preservation of special properties especially of fruit-bearing origins, but also ornamental plants, if their conservation by poor or disease-prone root system, unsatisfactory growth strength (too strong, too weak) or incompatibility with the soil (eg lime) at risk is.
Cause of the global coverage of vines was imported from the mid-19th century from America phylloxera, In the extremely complex life cycle of the pest, the leaves are above ground and / or (which is much more dangerous) subterraneously infesting the roots. The vines react as a defense reaction through formation of Gallen (Leaves) or growths (roots), which are used by the phylloxera as food. The Wucherungsformen at the roots is called Nodositäten (on young, unboned roots) and tuberosities (at old roots). Some of the American vine species are resistant to varying degrees. Vine-resistant species produce little to no growth at the roots. The picture shows a Europeans Vine with a hole-like depression reaching far into the interior and a reblausresistente American vine where, after the phylloxera pitting, a closure by cork fabric takes place.
After numerous failed attempts with partly absurd ideas one finally came up with the saving idea. On the rhizomes of selected American vines, noble vines were grafted by European vines. Resistant are the American species Vitis berlandieri (high lime tolerance, reblausfest at the root), Vitis rupestris. Vitis riparia and the most resistant to rain Vitis cinerea, As early as the end of the 19th century, therefore, crops were made by various American species, but also with the European Vitis vinifera, and from these the documents known today are selected. Ideally, they do not just show resistance against phylloxera and nematodes (Thread worms) on, but are synonymous for various soil types suitable and harmonize with the growth characteristics of the respective Edelreises (upper part).
The character of the new vine is determined solely by the grafted noble variety, since the genetic material of the scion does not mix with that of the...