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Martini Cocktail

classic cocktail, around the origin of which there are many legends. There are at least ten versions of the "invention" of martini, but it is most likely that this drink has slowly developed. The most likely forerunner of the "Martini" was a cocktail called "Martinez", which in turn owes its name to the Californian city of Martinez, where it became popular towards the end of the 19th century. There is even a plaque commemorating the "Birth of Martini" at the intersection of Alhambra Avenue and Masonic Street. Already around the year 1850 wormwood exported to the USA, but only around 1880 by bartenders gin added.

There is no exact date of the "first martini". A "Martinez" was mentioned in writing for the first time in 1884, but alternatively Curacao, Maraschino (cherry) and orange bitter were added. New York bartender Jerry Thomas is considered the inventor. The name "Martini" was first mentioned in 1888 and "Dry Martini Cocktail" in 1904 in a French bar book. In any case, the martini is one of the appetizers and is today usually mixed from several parts of gin and a smaller part of mostly dry wormwood. But it can also be used instead of classic gin vodka used, then it must be ordered explicitly as a "vodka martini". Will be a instead of gin whiskey, as well as Angostura admitted, this is a Manhattan,

Martini cocktail: bitter orange, chiller, wormwood, gin / martini glass with olives

There are different recipes and different opinions about what the real "classic martini" would be. In any case, he must not use the wormwood of the same name of the Italian company Martini & Rossi be confused. In principle, any wormwood brand is permissible, but everything is preferred by the Italian martini or the French Noilly Prat, The most famous form is the classic "Dry Martini", which consists of London Dry Gin, as little wormwood as possible and an olive or lemon peel as a garnish. The "International Bartenders Association" lists the "Dry Martini" among the "Official IBA Cocktails" with the following recipe: 5.5 cl gin and 1.5 cl dry vermouth. Place all ingredients in a mixing glass with ice cubes, stir well and strain into a chilled Martini dish with the typical, conical shape (straight up = without ice). Then some oil from a piece of lemon peel is sprayed onto the drink or the glass is garnished with an olive. The cocktail glasses are usually pre-chilled (frosted). Special martini chillers, i.e. goblets without a stem, which are left in a container previously filled with crushed ice after serving, are less common, but there are mixing ratios of 3: 1 to 8: 1 in the cocktail fibula. An extreme form is to moisten the glass with wormwood at all. In any case, in the early days of martini, a significantly higher amount of wormwood was common than today.

A hotly debated question is "shaken or stirred". Because the type of preparation has an influence on taste and appearance. When shaken, the drink usually becomes colder than when stirred and can be watered down relatively easily by the ice. On the other hand, there is a special optical effect: the air that enters the drink makes the liquid appear milky shortly after pouring it out and only slowly clears up as the small bubbles rise (what purists call "ugly"). Secret agent James Bond 007 orders his martini in "Casino Royale" as follows: A dry martini, shaken not stirred (shaken not stirred) in a champagne flute. Add three measures of Gordon's (gin), one measure of vodka and half a measure of Kina Lillet. Shake the whole thing thoroughly until it is ice cold, and add a thin slice of lemon peel .

So James Bond wants the vermouth-like wine liqueur instead of the traditional wormwood Lillet (Kina Lillet). He also has unusual gin and vodka added. He later calls the cocktail "Vesper" after the first name of a woman with whom he fell in love. Martini fans with a puristic touch accuse the secret agent Bond (it would be better for the English author Ian Fleming, who invented it) to be a cultural break, because a martini has to be prepared exclusively with gin and wormwood, and absolutely "touched".

Numerous addicts and more or less legendary reports about events surround the cult drink. In 1933, the Martinis in the White House marked the end of the American prohibition (1920-1933) celebrated. The American writer and war correspondent Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) accompanied an American advance squad during the reconquest of Paris in 1944. This was celebrated in the bar of the Hotel Ritz with numerous martinis. At the Yalta conference in February 1945 on the Crimean peninsula with the three Allied heads of state Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945), Winston Churchill (1874-1965) and Josef Stalin (1878-1953), Roosevelt reportedly had a suitcase with bartending accessories in order not to have to do without his beloved "dirty martinis" (with a dash of salty olive juice).

To the question of how many martini cocktails you can drink or tolerate Quote by the well-known US writer Dorothy Parker (1893-1967): I like to have a martini, two at the very most. After three I'm under the table, after four I'm under my host! (I like to drink martinis, but two are served enough, because after three I lie under the table and after four under the landlord. Winston Churchill is credited with the following "martini recipe", with which he claims an "extremely economical" use of wormwood: The The driest martini is a bottle of good gin that once stood next to a vermouth bottle, and last but not least a quote from the US writer James Thurber (1894-1961): One martini is just right. Two are too many. Three are not enough.

How to describe a very dry martini is shown in a scene in the novel "The high window" by the US writer Raymond Chandler (1888-1959). Private investigator Philip Marlowe orders a martini in a bar: a martini. Dry. Very, very, very dry . The bartender: OK. Do you want to eat it with a spoon or with a knife and fork? Philip Marlowe: Cut it into strips. I just want to nibble on it.

Left: By Achim Schleuning - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0 , Link

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