Various processes in red wine making, in order to achieve as intense as possible in a short time extraction of the phenols ( dyes. tannins ) from the grape skins. These are also referred to by the term thermovinification . Heating or heating of the mash destroys the cell structure of the berries and releases the dyes within a short time. The method is preferred in Botrytis respectively. bunch rot damaged grape material used to avoid prolonged mash contact. The process is also called digesting . This is derived from the Latin "digerere" (digestion = leaching); that is extraction of ingredients by maceration, This is usually done before one fermentation, Once this starts, you can no longer talk about digestion / maceration, although the transition is fluid.
In the long-term heating , the mash is heated to 50 to 55 ° Celsius and allowed to stand for about two hours. Thereafter, pressed, cooled and a juice fermentation (ie no maceration ) carried out. In the high-short-term heating is heated for only a few minutes up to 70 ° Celsius, then cooled back to fermentation temperature and carried out a juice fermentation. The heat or heat destroyed yeasts. enzymes and oxidases, causing the oxidation risk is reduced and makes less sulfur use possible. Another form is the short-term heating (hot maceration) of the mash after it has occurred maceration to about 40 to 45 degrees Celsius (French "Macération finale à chaud"). This technique reinforces the extraction of the anthocyanins and the tannins, gives round and aromatic wines, but can also vegetable or jammy Generate notes.
A special form is that of the INRA developed Flash détente (literally translated "lightning / quick-relaxation"). The completely de-mashed mash is heated for a few minutes to 95 ° Celsius and then placed in a corresponding tank in a vacuum. This results in a very fast cooling down to 30 ° Celsius. This causes a break up of the berry structure and increase the yield of phenols by up to 50%. The procedure was first in the Côtes du Rhône admitted and is in the meantime also in the Bordeaux common.
Mash heat produced wines are ready to drink sooner and work full-bodied (Fuller). When heated above 65 ° Celsius, it can cause a jammy (easy) or Kochton come (strong). The red wines have an intense color with strong bluish reflections, but much less tannins, For high-quality, long-storable red wines, however, the process is usually not applied.
There are, however, a few more methods for stronger color and extract leaching. That's among other things Autovinifikation. Cryomaceration. electroporation. Maceration. Rotofermenter and overpumping, Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,