After fertilization at the blossom the berries begin to grow very quickly. The acid concentration in the unripe berries rises to a maximum, then the acid concentration is reduced and the sugar content increases rapidly. At this time, the starts within the annual growth cycle the vine as veraison designated maturity phase, when the berries soften and begin to discolour. The completion of the maturity phase or peak of the maturation is due to an optimal ratio of sugar to acid marked (see also under physiological maturity ). The duration between flowering and maturity is ever vine very different, therefore one speaks accordingly from early to late maturing grape varieties. Influence on it too soil type. climate. Weather and the work of winegrower, The ripening time is also dependent on the microclimate in the vineyard and can also be individual Clone of the same grape variety. Even in smaller winegrowing areas, the same grape variety can deliver different results.
The terms early to late maturing were formerly understood very differently. The Ampelographer Victor Pulliat (1827-1896) developed therefore towards the end of the 19th century a uniform classification, which is still used today. He defined as a reference grape variety the early ripening Chasselas (Gutedel) and as a measurement or comparison criterion the Mostgewicht, The scale consists of five categories, which are divided again into early, middle and late. Frequently, however, grape varieties are classified only very roughly and inaccurately in the three categories early, medium and late. The five pulliat maturity periods cover a period of around six weeks:
First maturity period (cépages de première époque) = early : These ripen almost at the same time as Chasselas, but at the latest 10 to 12 days afterwards. That's among other things Admirable de Courtiller. Chardonnay. Foster's White Seedling. Chasselas. Gamay. Dornfelder. Müller-Thurgau. Pinot Blanc. Pinot Gris. Pinot Noir. Tempranillo,
Second maturity period (cépages de deuxuxe époque) = medium : These mature at least two, but no later than three weeks after Chasselas. That's among other things Alphonse Lavallée. Bicane. Cabernet Franc. Chenin Blanc. ignea. Queen Elisabeth. Leopold III.. Merlot. Muscat d'Hamburg. Riesling. Sauvignon Blanc. Sémillon. Sultana. Syrah,
Third maturity period (cépages de troisième époque) = late : These mature at least three weeks, but at the latest 30 to 35 days after Chasselas. That's among other things Angelo Pirovano. Cabernet Sauvignon. Garnacha Tinta (Grenache Noir), Monastrell (Mourvèdre) Regina. Green Valtellina,
Albert Julius Winkler (1894-1989) and Maynard A. Amerine (1911-1998) of the University of California (Davis) shared on the basis of Temperature sums system (degree days) the Californian wine regions in five climates with the optimal grape varieties with respect to maturity (see California ).
The criteria for the suitability of a region for viticulture are considered as Weinbauwürdigkeit designated. For the development, development, maturation and culmination of a wine, see aging. bottle aging. durability and maturity, A complete list of varietal specific keywords is available at grapevine,