After fertilization at blossom the berries start to grow very quickly. The acid concentration in the immature berries rises to a maximum, then the acid concentration is reduced and the sugar content increases rapidly. At this point, the begins within the annual growth cycle the vine as veraison designated ripening phase, from which the berries become soft and begin to change color. The completion of the maturation phase or climax of the maturation is due to an optimal ratio of sugar to acid marked (see also under physiological maturity ). The time between flowering and ripening is different vine very different, that's why we speak of early to late ripening grape varieties. Also have an impact soil type. climate. Weather and the work of the winegrower, The ripening time also depends on the microclimate in the vineyard and can also affect some Clone differ from the same grape variety. Even in smaller wine-growing areas, the same grape variety can deliver different results.
The terms maturing early to late were previously understood very differently. The Ampelograph Victor Pulliat (1827-1896) therefore developed a uniform classification towards the end of the 19th century, which is still used today. He defined the early ripening as the reference variety Chasselas (Gutedel) and as a measurement or comparison criterion Mostgewicht, The scale consists of five categories, which are further divided into early, medium and late. However, grape varieties are often only roughly and inaccurately divided into the three categories early, medium and late. The five Pulliat maturation periods cover a period of around six weeks:
First ripening period (cépages de première époque) = early: These ripen almost simultaneously with Chasselas, but at the latest 10 to 12 days after. These include Admirable de Courtiller. Chardonnay. Foster's White Seedling. Chasselas. Gamay. Dornfelder. Müller-Thurgau. Pinot Blanc. Pinot gris. Pinot Noir. Tempranillo,
Second ripening period (cépages de deuxième époque) = medium: These ripen at least two, but at the latest three weeks after Chasselas. These include Alphonse Lavallée. Bicane. Cabernet Franc. Chenin Blanc. ignea. Queen Elisabeth. Leopold III. Merlot. Muscat d'Hamburg. Riesling. Sauvignon Blanc. Sémillon. Sultana. Syrah,
Third ripening period (cépages de troisième époque) = late: These ripen at least three weeks, but at the latest 30 to 35 days after Chasselas. These include Angelo Pirovano. Cabernet Sauvignon. Garnacha Tinta (Grenache Noir), Monastrell (Mourvèdre) Regina. Green Valtellina,
Albert Julius Winkler (1894-1989) and Maynard A. Amerine (1911-1998) by the University of California (Davis) shared based on the Temperature sums system (degree days) the California Wine regions in five climate zones with the optimal grape varieties in terms of ripening.
Since the middle of the last century, the time of maturity in connection with the climate Change strongly shifted. It occurs one to two weeks earlier than in the 1960s today (2020s). The French ampelographer Pierre Galet (1921-2019) made a list in 1964 with the ripening time of the most important grape varieties grown in France, with which this fact can be proven.
The criteria for the suitability of a region for viticulture are called Weinbauwürdigkeit designated. Regarding the expansion, development, maturation and climax of a wine see under aging. bottle aging. durability and maturity, A complete listing of grape-specific keywords can be found at grapevine,
Weinbeere: © DWI (German Wine Institute)