The red grape variety comes from Spain. Over 100 synonyms prove the age of the vine. The main alphabetically grouped by country are Carignan, Carignane, Carignan Noir, Pinot d'Evora ( France ); Bovale di Spagna, Bovale Grande, Bovale Mannu, Carignano, Tintiglia ( Italy. Sardinia ); Carignane, Kerrigan ( California ); Carinhana ( Portugal ); Cariñano, Cariñena, Catalan, Crujillón, Mazuela, Mollard, Samsó, Samsó Crusillo, Tinta Mazuela, Tintilia, Tintillosa, Zinzillosa ( Spain ). Despite apparently indicative synonyms or morphological It must not be similar to the varieties Bobal. Cinsault (Samsó) Graciano (Bovale Sardo), Mollard. Nieddera. Parraleta. Pascale or Tintilia del Molise be confused.
According to a no longer verifiable hypothesis, Mazuelo (or Carignano) was already in the 9th century BC. BC from the Phoenicians on Sardinia introduced, for which there is understandably no evidence. The origin of the Mazuelo is unknown, but it is most likely the result of a cross in Spain (and not in Sardinia). A suspected genetic relationship of Mazuelo and Graciano, which corresponds to Sardinian origin, has not been confirmed. The white variety Cariñena Blanca is a color mutation (but is not called Mazuelo Blanca, as one might assume). Mazuelo was a crossing partner of the new varieties Argaman. Carmine. Carnelian. Centurion and Ruby Cabernet,
The probably very old variety probably comes from Aragon, From here, it spread throughout Europe from the 12th century. Today's main name Mazuelo is from the municipality of Mazuelo de Muñó in the province of Burgos in the region to the west Castile and Leon derived. The synonym Cariñena probably refers to the place of the same name near Zaragoza in Aragon. This has become in France Carignan (Noir) and Italy Carignano. The name Cariñena used to be very common in Catalonia. However, since there is a DO area of the same name, the variety is now referred to as Samsó . And according to 2007 DNA analysis Bovale di Spagna, native to Sardinia, is also identical.
The late ripening, extremely productive vine is both mildews and Botrytis but resistant to Black spots disease, It produces deep dark, acid and tannin-rich wines, but without a special aroma and profile. Mostly it is therefore used with other varieties such as Cinsault and Garnacha Tinta (Grenache Noir) blended with simple rosé and red wines for quick enjoyment. With rigorous yield restrictions, however, especially vines that are full of character, deep and surprisingly elegant even at higher alcohol levels can be produced from old vines. The number of impressive wines of this type is constantly increasing.
In Algeria the variety occupied 140,000 hectares in the early 1960s, huge amounts of wine were transported to the mother country for blending purposes. Thousands of French winegrowers due to Algerian independence in 1962 France returned, it was planted here on a large scale. For a long time it was the most common French grape variety. However, the trend has been falling rapidly since the 1970s, old vines are no longer being replaced. In 2010, the acreage was still 53,155 hectares, of which around 80% was in the region Languedoc-Roussillon in the departments Aude and Hérault, The other stocks are in the southeast. The well-known aperitif Byrrh is mainly produced from Carignan.
In Italy it is mostly up Sardinia spread where they are in the DOC wines Campidano di Terralba. Carignano del Sulcis and Mandrolisai is allowed. In the region Lazio it is in DOC wine Cerveteri represented. The total Italian acreage is 2,023 hectares. In Spain will be especially in Aragon. Catalonia. La Mancha. Navarra and Rioja grown. The total Spanish acreage is 4,749 hectares. Other countries in Europe and North Africa are Algeria (7,550 ha), Greece (16 ha), Israel (971 ha), Croatia (34 ha), Morocco (1,692 ha), Portugal (338 ha), Tunisia (7,576 ha), Turkey (84 ha) and Cyprus (481 ha).
Overseas there is acreage in Argentina (29 ha), Chile (477 ha), Mexico (448 ha), Myanmar (4 ha), South Africa (81 ha) and Uruguay, as well as in the US states California (1,373 ha) and Washington, In 2010, the variety occupied a total of 80,178 hectares of vineyards. Compared to 1990 with 202,869 hectares at the time, this was an extreme reduction of almost two thirds. It thus proves worldwide varieties ranking rank 11.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)