From the Anatolian highlands to the Persian Gulf, a thriving front-Asian landscape between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris (hence "Mesopotamia") with an area of about 350,000 km². Today, the vast majority of the Iraq, smaller parts in the north and northwest are among Armenia. Lebanon. Syria and the Turkey, Located in the north Transcaucasia, which is associated with Mesopotamia as a possible source of cultured grapevine and wine culture applies. According to the latest research, however, the origin is said to lie in the north-adjacent Turkish southeast Anatolia (arrow). That's near the mountain Ararat in which loud Bible Noah landed and became the first wine grower. The first Wine but was probably derived from dates and above all beer drinking. Presumably, beer is the oldest man-made alcoholic beverage before wine. In the 1st millennium BC In the 3rd century BC, wine was regularly drunk in this area by the higher class, a variety is referred to as the King's Potion. A found name "wine of the mountains" suggests that wine was probably mainly from the mountainous north (northern Iraq and northern Syria).
In Mesopotamia originated from the 4th millennium BC. The first advanced civilizations of humanity date back to around the 3rd century BC and the area is also described as the cradle of culture par excellence. The four major ethnic groups of the Sumerians, Semites, Hittites and Churrites were reciprocal in cultural development. The Sumerians founded 6,000 years ago in the south numerous city states (for example, Kusch and Ur) and developed a pictorial drawing as a precursor of cuneiform, which is considered the first writing in general. In the Sumerian Gilgamesh epic, the hero invades Gilgamesh (around 2700 BC) in search of eternal life in the realm of the sun, where he discovers an enchanted vineyard. In this work, the development of the "cultivated man" is told by the enjoyment of beer. Beer and wine are among the oldest ceremonial testimonials drinking culture,
The cultural landscape Mesopotamia was never a self-contained, cultural unit, but there were mostly several city states, empires and cultures side by side. One of them was the area, for example Phenicia, In the 3rd and 2nd millennium, however, the history of the southern and northeastern parts largely coincided with that of Assyria and Babylonia, These two peoples then alternated in the rule over the area or large parts of it several times in succession. The city of Babylon as the center of the empire (successor of Kush and Ur) was the famous king Hammurabi (1728-1686 BC), during which time the Babylonian Empire covered almost the entire Mesopotamia.
In the 9th century BC BC developed an Assyrian empire, which extended from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean, so also almost the entire area. Under Nebuchadnezzar II. (605-562 BC) then Babylonia once again developed into a great empire. In 539 BC BC, the Persian king Cyrus II (559-529 BC) conquered the Babylonian Empire including the Assyrian area. After that Alexander the Great conquered it (356-323 BC), then fell to the Greeks and finally to the Parthians. In the first centuries after Christ, it was temporarily under Roman rule, until it finally fell to the Arabs in the 7th century. See also under this topic Ancient wines and Antique grape varieties,