From the Anatolian highlands to the Persian Gulf, the expanse of the Near East landscape between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris (hence “Two-Stream Land”) with an area of around 350,000 km². Today the vast majority is part of Iraq, smaller parts in the north and northwest count Armenia. Lebanon. Syria and the Turkey, In the north Transcaucasia that cultured with Mesopotamia as a possible origin grapevine and wine culture applies. However, according to the latest research, the origin is said to be in Turkey's south-east Anatolia bordering on the north (arrow). That is near the mountain Ararat, at which loud Bible Noah landed and became the first winegrower. The first Wine but was probably won from dates and above all beer drinking. Beer is probably the oldest man-made alcoholic beverage before wine. In the 1st millennium BC BC, wine was regularly drunk in this area by the higher strata, a variety is known as the "potion of the king". A found name "wine of the mountains" indicates that wine probably came mainly from the mountainous north (northern Iraq and northern Syria).
Mesopotamia originated from the 4th millennium BC. The first advanced civilizations of mankind and the area is also known as the cradle of culture par excellence. The four large ethnic groups of the Sumerians, Semites, Hittites and Churriters were mutually influential for cultural development. The Sumerians founded numerous city-states (e.g. Kusch and Ur) 6,000 years ago in the south and developed a pictorial script as a preliminary stage of the cuneiform script, which is the first font ever. In the Sumerian Gilgamesh epic, the hero penetrates Gilgamesh (around 2700 BC) in search of eternal life in the realm of the sun, where he discovers an enchanted vineyard. This work also tells the development of a “cultivated person” by enjoying beer. Beer and wine are among the oldest ceremonial evidence drinking culture,
However, the cultural landscape of Mesopotamia was never a self-contained, cultural unit, but mostly several city-states, empires and cultures coexisted. One of them was the area, for example Phenicia, In the 3rd and 2nd millennium, however, the history of the southern and northeastern part largely coincided with that of Assyria and Babylonia, These two peoples then alternated several times in succession in the rule over the area or large parts of it. The city of Babylon as the center of the empire (successor to Kush and Ur) was made by the famous king Hammurabi (1728-1686 BC) founded, at the time the Babylonian Empire encompassed almost all of Mesopotamia.
In the 9th century BC Chr. Developed an Assyrian empire that extended from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean, so also almost the entire area. Under Nebuchadnezzar II. (605-562 BC) then Babylonia again developed into a large empire. In 539 BC The Persian king Cyrus II (559-529 BC) conquered the Babylonian empire including the Assyrian area. Afterwards it was conquered by Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), then fell to the Greeks and finally to the Parthians. In the first centuries after Christ it was temporarily under Roman rule until it finally fell to the Arabs in the 7th century. See also on this topic Ancient wines and Ancient grape varieties,