Process in the manufacture of sparkling wine or Perlwein where the second fermentation not in the bottle, but in a pressure tank. That is why it is also known as tank fermentation or large-scale fermentation, in France as Cuve-close and in Spain as Granvás. The invention is the French agricultural engineer Eugène Charmat attributed. At the beginning of the 20th century, he experimented at the university in Montpellier (Languedoc) with pressure tanks and introduced the method in 1910. Federico is particularly valid in Italy Martinotti (1860-1924), the director of the l'Istituto Sperimentale per l'Enologia di Asti as inventor, who apparently made extensive experiments in his institute even before Charmat. He used closed containers that withstood a pressure of up to 6 bar. That is why in Italy the process is patriotically referred to as Metodo martinotti, Metodo martinotti-charmat or Metodo italiano.
But others, such as the French chemist Edme-Jules Mauméé (1818-1898) in collaboration with L. Jaunay, were already dealing with sparkling wine fermentation in pressure-resistant large containers as early as 1852, so that there are probably several fathers or inventors for this process. In any case, over five million bottles of sparkling wine were already produced in this way in France in 1930, and the process became established worldwide. Because it allowed the production of inexpensive sparkling wines for the first time and turned the exclusive luxury item into an affordable product. After the Second World War, perfection was promoted particularly in Germany. Today the majority of the sect and Spumanti so made. at Cava. champagne. Hauersekt and sparkling wine In principle, however, the procedure is not permitted.
The temperature-controlled pressure tanks hold 100,000 to 200,000 liters of wine. By adding the Dosage (Filling dosage) the secondary fermentation is initiated. The resulting carbon dioxide remains trapped in the pressure tank. The yeast set in the tank is periodically stirred up by agitators to enrich the wine with these flavors. After storage, which usually lasts several months, the shipping dosage is added for the desired residual sweetness. Finally, the tank is cooled down to minus degrees, whereby the carbonic acid becomes "inactive" and remains bound in the sparkling wine. Now there is one filtration and the bottling,
The advantage of the charmat method is that the second fermentation is much cheaper, faster and less expensive than the traditional one Méthode champenoise respectively. Method classique in terms of bottle fermentation and dégorgement (Removal of the yeast set). The quality of bottle fermentation with high Perlfähigkeit can usually not be achieved with it. A high quality basic wine can also mature into a top-quality product in steel tanks with a correspondingly long yeast storage. A somewhat modified form is that developed in Russia Continuous process, Also at Transvasierverfahren tanks are used.
A detailed description of the sparkling wine production with all processing steps can be found at champagne, Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,
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