Process in the production of sparkling wine or Perlwein in which the second fermentation not in the bottle but in a pressure tank. Therefore, it is also referred to as tank fermentation or large-scale fermentation, in France as Cuve-close and in Spain as Granvás. The invention is the French agricultural engineer Eugène Charmat attributed. This experimented at the beginning of the 20th century at the University of Montpellier (Languedoc) with pressure tanks and introduced from the year 1910 the method. However, especially in Italy Federico applies Martinotti (1860-1924), the director of l'Istituto Sperimentale per l'Enologia di Asti as inventor, who apparently made extensive experiments in his institute before Charmat. He used closed containers that withstand a pressure of up to 6 bar. Therefore, in Italy, the process is patriotically referred to as Metodo martinotti, Metodo martinotti-charmat or Metodo italiano.
But others, such as the French chemist Edme-Jules Maumené (1818-1898) in collaboration with L. Jaunay were already busy in 1852 with sparkling wine fermentation in pressure-resistant large containers, so there are probably several fathers or inventors for this process. In any case, more than five million bottles of sparkling wine were already produced in France in 1930, and the process was successful throughout the world. Because it allowed for the first time the production of cheap sparkling wines and made the exclusive luxury article an affordable product. After the Second World War, perfection was pushed forward, especially in Germany. Today, the bulk of the sect and Spumanti made that way. at Cava. champagne. Hauersekt and sparkling wine However, the procedure is not allowed in principle.
The temperature-controlled pressure tanks hold 100,000 to 200,000 liters of wine. By adding the Dosage (Fülldosage), the secondary fermentation is initiated. The resulting carbon dioxide remains trapped in the pressure tank. The set of yeast in the tank is periodically stirred by agitators to enrich the wine with these flavors. After mostly several months of storage, the shipping dose is added for the desired residual sweetness. Finally, the tank is cooled down to minus degrees, whereby the carbon dioxide is "inactive" and remains bound in the sparkling wine. Now there is a filtration and the bottling,
The advantage of the Méthode Charmat is that the second fermentation is much cheaper, faster and less expensive than the traditional one Méthode champenoise or. Méthode classique in terms of bottle fermentation and dégorgement (Removing the yeast pack) is. The quality of a bottle fermentation with high Perlfähigkeit but usually can not be achieved with it. A high quality basic wine but can also mature in a steel tank with yeast storage corresponding to a long time to a Spitztenprodukt. A slightly modified form is that developed in Russia Continuous process, Also at Transvasierverfahren tanks are used.
A detailed description of sparkling wine production with all processing steps is available at champagne, Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,
Graphics: Sektkellerei J.Oppmann AG