Relatively new winemaking technique (also Microbullage) in the context of the so-called oxygen management, In this attempt is made by appropriately metered supply of air or pure oxygen To optimize the must or young wine, the color or the flavor of the wine. Although the term "micro-oxidation" has come to be used, the correct term for it is "micro-oxygenation" (or micro-oxigenation), since it is not a "micro-oxidation" oxidation in the traditional sense. Oxigenation means limited supply of oxygen or metered saturation with oxygen, in order to achieve certain quality-promoting processes grape or Wine to effect.
However, microoxigenation differs significantly from oxidative expansion certain types of wine like port wine. sherry etc. and may not be confused with it. For such wines, there is often an intake of oxygen over the wine surface for years. Through this long contact, alcohol in large quantities becomes too acetaldehyde oxidized. Further reactions result nutty Aroma. At the same time oxidize the anthocyanins (Dyes) and this also changes the color of such wines to red to brown
In the case of micro-oxygenation, on the other hand, the oxygen supply takes place in quantity and time metered form, the oxygen concentration in the wine is never higher than 0.5 mg / l. The formed acetaldehyde does not accumulate, but promotes the polymerization the polyphenols. In the meantime, a variety of forms have developed, which are at different stages of the winemaking come to the application. Depending on the amount of oxygen, a distinction is made between the following four different forms of oxygenation:
Supply of oxygen in the smallest amounts (nano = few to thousands of atoms) during bottle storage or bottle aging over the closure, as is the case for example with natural corks. But this is also controlled by specially designed for it Closures such as the brand VinPerfect,
Low dosed continuous oxygenation in the young red wine after the fermentation, A first application was in the early 1990s in the French area Madiran with the goal of hard, tannin Wines from the Tannat grape to soften. Amounts of 3 to 5 mg per liter per day are added. This is especially true during the expansion of tannin - rich wines in the tank as a partial alternative to Barrique applied. This simulates a similar environment as in a wooden barrel, where even a small exchange of air through the permeable wood takes place.
Microoxigenation and barrel aging However, they are not necessarily mutually exclusive, but can be complementary. Positive effects are a stabilization of the colour and a "supple" taste, what through polymerization of the anthocyanins and tannins is effected. For a controlled application, special tank systems have been developed that are already available in many wine-producing countries Find use. Especially in France, especially in Bordeaux, the process is in use in many wineries.
Strong and multiple intermittent oxygen supply into the red wine mash during the fermentation of red wine. This will increase the yeasts promoted and that clarify favored after fermentation. Furthermore, the formation of sulfurous off and other problems as well as color stabilization (see beautiful ) can be achieved.
Massive and sustained oxygenation in a short time, especially white wine must before fermentation. This causes rapid oxidation of the phenolic components. These turn dark and settle on the floor. The must is then stripped and fermented normally. The wines are far less susceptible to oxidation and also have a lower tannin content, which in white wines in contrast to red wines usually yes desirable and beneficial.
Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the various wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,