Relatively new winemaking technology (also microbullage) as part of the so-called oxygen management, This is attempted by appropriately metered supply of air or pure oxygen to optimize the color or taste development of the wine with must or young wine. Although the term "micro-oxidation" has become established, the correct expression for this is "micro-oxygenation" (or micro-oxygenation), since it is not one oxidation acts in the conventional sense. Oxigenation means limited oxygen supply or dosed saturation with oxygen in order to ensure certain quality-promoting processes in the grape or Wine to effect.
However, the microoxygenation differs significantly from oxidative expansion certain types of wine like port wine. sherry etc. and should not be confused with it. With such wines, oxygen is often introduced over the surface of the wine for years. This long contact causes alcohol to be consumed in large quantities acetaldehyde oxidized. Further reactions result in a nutty Aroma. At the same time, they also oxidize anthocyanins (Dyes) and this also changes the color of such wines from red to brown
In the case of microoxygenation, on the other hand, the oxygen is supplied in quantity and time, the oxygen concentration in wine is never higher than 0.5 mg / l. The acetaldehyde formed does not accumulate, but promotes it polymerization of polyphenols. Various forms have developed in the meantime, in different stages of winemaking come into use. Depending on the amount of oxygen, a distinction is made between the following four different forms of oxygenation:
Smallest amounts of oxygen (nano = a few to thousands of atoms) during bottle storage or bottle aging about the closure, as is the case with natural corks, for example. But this is also done in a controlled manner using specially designed ones Closures such as the brand VinPerfect,
Low dosed running oxygen supply in the young red wine after the fermentation, It was first used in the French area in the early 1990s Madiran with the aim of tannin Wines from the Tannat grape to soften. Amounts of 3 to 5 mg per liter per day are added. Above all, this becomes a partial alternative to the development of tannin-rich wines in the tank Barrique applied. This simulates an environment similar to that in a wooden barrel, where there is little air exchange through the permeable wood.
Microoxygenation and barrel aging however, they are not necessarily mutually exclusive, but can also be supplementary. Positive effects are a stabilization of the colour and a "smooth" taste by what polymerization of the anthocyanins and tannins is effected. For a controlled application, special tank systems have been developed, which are already used in many wine-producing countries Find use. In France in particular, especially in Bordeaux, the process is used by many wineries.
Vigorous and intermittent oxygen supply into the red wine mash during the fermentation of red wine. This will increase the yeasts promoted and that clarify favored after fermentation. Furthermore, the formation of sulfurous off and other problems prevented, as well as a color stabilization (see under beautiful ) can be achieved.
Massive and sustained oxygen supply in a short time, especially in white wine must before fermentation. This causes a rapid oxidation of the phenolic components. These turn dark and settle on the floor. The must is then removed and fermented normally. As a result, the wines are much less susceptible to oxidation and also have a lower tannin content, which is usually desirable and advantageous for white wines in contrast to red wines.
Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the various types of wine, sparkling wine and distillate regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,