Shaped form with around 17,000 species of tiny arachnids (Arachnida) with cylindrical, spherical or disc-shaped bodies in many colors with three or mostly four pairs of legs (including the ticks). In contrast to the other arachnids, which live mostly predatory, mites are mostly herbivores or parasitic on plants or animals. Often there are also useful insects that are involved in the bottoming by feeding animal or vegetable residues play an important role. It is divided into the two groups Gallmilben (Tetrapodili, with about 0.15 mm tiny) and spider mites (Tetranychidae, to about 0.5 mm).
Among the most significant pests on the vine include in particular the four species of leaf mite or smallpox mite (Eriophyes vitis), curling mite (Calepitrimerus vitis), red spider or fruit tree spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) and common spider mite or bean spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). A fight is also with insecticides, Especially the gall mites are sensitive to sulfur, The mites have numerous natural enemies like gall midges (certain species), lacewings. ladybug and predatory mites,
The smallpox mite (Blattgallmilbe) is distributed worldwide. The adult animals overwinter under the bud scales. They become active in spring and cause by pricking the Filzkrankheit,
The negative effects of the tiny curling mites , which are not even recognizable under the microscope, were first discovered by Hermann Müller-Thurgau (1850-1927) recognized in 1903. In the spring the pest is opened eyes affected. The puncture of the boys leaves but does not lead to bile, as with the leaf gall mites, but to crimps, weak expulsion, Short knots and broom growth.
The red spider (spider mite) first appeared in large quantities in the 1950s. The hibernation takes place as an intense brick red colored egg near the winter buds and the old wood in such an amount that these areas are discolored red. The larvae hatch near the end of leaf formation and develop into sexual animals. The females carry on the back long bristles that protrude from white dots. They lay the eggs on the leaves, every year there are up to six generations. The pierced leaves bulge like a spoon, remain small or fall off and the result is short shoots and Verrieseln,
The common spider mite (bean spider mite) occurs in over one hundred plants. It hibernates as a 0.5 millimeter large, mated female under the bark on the stem or in fallen leaves on the ground. Very early in the spring, she walks beside the vineyards on host plants. Only at the end of May at the earliest do the insects migrate to the vine leaves. There they develop a strong spinning activity, which is noticeable in the upper part of the shoots and leaf tips by filaments. In heavy infestations, the leaves dry and fall off. It will be the grapes affected. The insects are recognizable on the green leaves by the pair of dark spots on the yellow-green abdomen (hence they are also called branch-spotted spider mite). In one year, there can be up to eight generations of the pest. See also below beneficials and Vine enemies,