The current state is 1991 due to the decay of the USSR emerged. Its geographical roots lie in the historical landscape Bessarabia (see the history there). Through numerous archaeological finds such as amphorae and grape seeds prove that winegrowing has been practiced here for more than 5,000 years. In the north, east and south, the state of the Ukraine enclosed. It is adjacent to the west Romania whose influence is felt by the long history together in viticulture. The princes of Moldavia founded their own wine culture in the Middle Ages. However, this broke from the beginning of the 16th century under the 300-year Ottoman rule and the associated alcohol ban together again.
After the Russo-Turkish war, viticulture was reactivated from 1812 onwards. In the second half of the 19th century, many French grape varieties were introduced. The viticulture suffered but then towards the end of the 20th century by the phylloxera disaster again the heaviest setbacks or losses. After a brief recovery, most of the vineyards and wineries were destroyed by the two world wars. The reconstruction began in the 1950s. Within ten years, 150,000 hectares were planted and the vine population grew well over 200,000 hectares. In the USSR, Moldova became the largest wine producer with about a quarter of its production. In the 1980s but were under Mikhail Gorbachev especially in the north, many vineyards have been cleared.
Numerous legends and anecdotes testify to the ancient winemaking tradition. Among the most famous stories is that of the storks: Once again there was a Turkish invasion; the enemy besieged a fortress near Grodieshti. The brave defenders ran out of water and food, and the strength of the fighters was slowly dwindling. Suddenly, hundreds of storks appeared in the sky, driving the enemy to the ground with the help of the wind and their strong wing beats. The storks threw bundles of vines down from their beaks to the defenders. The warriors were saved from thirst and hunger. With new strength successfully defended the local fortress, and the Turkish enemy had to withdraw. Since then, the stork has been a symbol of happiness and contentment. The stork with grapes symbolizes Moldovan viticulture and is included in the logo of the Viticulture Association (source: WIKIPEDIA).
In 2012, the vineyard totaled 142,000 hectares, of which 1.47 million hectoliters of wine were produced (see also under Wine production volumes ). More than half will be for the cultivation of table grapes used. Viticulture has an eminent economic importance. Wine products, fruits and vegetables are the main export items. Around 70% of European standard varieties are cultivated. Two-thirds of white wine is grown to one-third red wine varieties. The Blend 2010 (Statistics Kym Anderson ):
|vine||colour||Synonyms or Moldovan name||hectare|
|Sauvignon Blanc||White||Sotern Marunt, Verdo Belîi||8151|
|Pinot Noir||red||Cerna, Pino Fran, Pino Ceren||6521|
|Chardonnay||White||Wais Edler, Waiser Clevner||5134|
|Fetească Albă||White||Fetişoară, Păsărească Albă, Poamă Fetei Albă||4334|
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||White||Traminer Musqué, Traminine Rose||2731|
|Pinot Blanc||White||Burgundy Veisser, Pino Belîi||350|
|Muscat Blanc / muscatel||White||-||172|
|Băbească Neagră||red||Poamă Rara Neagră, Rastriopa||80|
|Gamay Teinturier Fréaux||red||-||55|
|Cot||red||Cagors, Nuar de Presac||39|
|Saperavi Severny||red||Saperavi Severnii||25|
|Muscat de Yaloven||White||Muscat de Ialoveni||20|
|Negru de Yaloven||red||Negru de Ialoveni||15|
|Gamay Teinturier de Bouze||red||-||10|
|Alb de Yaloven||White||Alb de Ialoveni||2|
|Fetească Neagră||red||Coada Răndunicii, Păsărească Neagră||?|
The geographical and climatic conditions are very favorable for viticulture. Moldova is at the same latitude as the French Burgundy, There is a continental climate with high solar radiation. In 1954, after extensive studies, a professor PI Ivanov divided Moldova into four agrarian cultural zones with different climates. In the northern Balti region, mainly white wine grapes are produced for the production of brandy, fortified wines and simple wines. The central region Codru with the capital Chisinau is surrounded by forested mountains. Here are more than half of the vineyards and the most famous cellars such as the former Tsarengut romanesti,
In the city's famous 65-kilometer underground cellar vaults Cricova store the sparkling wines produced in the cellar of the same name and an extensive historical wine collection. In this region, among other excellent wines are pressed. The southern region of Cahul is particularly suitable for red wines and sweet wines. In the southeast of the country lies along the western Nister shore the fourth region Purcari (also Nistreana). It is known for its aging burgundy red wines, such as the "Negru de Purcari" produced by the winery of the same name. Towards the end of the 19th century Purcari wines were delivered among other things to the English royal court.
In contrast to the other former USSR countries, the proportion of dry wines is relatively high, but there are also the traditional sweet dessert wines. A biennial tradition has the famous port wine-like Kagor, Almost two-thirds of the production comes from cooperative wineries. Well-known producers in Moldova are for example Acorex, Aroma, Branesti, Château Vartel, Ciumai, Comrat, Cricova, Dionysos Mereni, Milestii Mici, Purcari, romanesti, Taraclia and Trifesti. Around 90% of wine production goes into export; with over 80% for the most part after Russia, In March 2006, the Russian government put an import ban on Moldovan and Georgian Wine products in place. The ban was made in the official version because of alleged violations of health regulations (excessive pollution). The embargo was lifted in November 2007. The high export share was, however, strongly reduced in the long term.