The current state is in 1991 due to the disintegration of the USSR emerged. Its geographical roots lie in the historical landscape Bessarabia (see history there). Through numerous archaeological finds such as amphorae and grape seeds is proven that viticulture has been practiced here for over 5,000 years. In the north, east and south, the state of the Ukraine enclosed. It borders in the west Romania, whose influence can be felt through the long common history in viticulture. The princes of Moldova established their own wine culture in the Middle Ages. However, this broke from the beginning of the 16th century under the 300-year Ottoman rule and the associated alcohol ban together again.
After the Russian-Turkish war, viticulture was reactivated in 1812. Many French grape varieties were introduced in the second half of the 19th century. The viticulture then suffered towards the end of the 20th century phylloxera disaster again severe setbacks or losses. After a short rest, a large part of the vineyards and wineries were destroyed by the two world wars. Reconstruction started in the 1950s. Within ten years, 150,000 hectares were planted and the vine stock grew well over 200,000 hectares. In the USSR, Moldova became the largest wine producer with around a quarter of its production. In the 1980s, however, under Mikhail Gorbachev many vineyards cleared again, especially in the north.
Numerous legends and anecdotes testify to the ancient wine-growing tradition. One of the most famous stories is that of the storks: Once again there was a Turkish invasion; the enemy besieged a fortress near Grodieshti. The brave defenders ran out of water and food, and the strength of the fighters was slowly running out. Suddenly hundreds of storks appeared in the sky, which with the help of the wind and their strong wing beats drove the enemy to the ground. The storks threw bundles of vines from their beaks down to the defenders. The warriors were saved from thirst and hunger. The domestic fortress was successfully defended with new strength, and the Turkish enemy had to withdraw. Since then, the stork has been a symbol of happiness and contentment. The stork with grapes symbolizes Moldavian viticulture and is included in the logo of the Viticulture Association (source: WIKIPEDIA).
In 2012, the vineyard area comprised a total of 142,000 hectares, of which 1.47 million hectoliters of wine were produced (see also under Wine production volumes ). More than half is used for growing table grapes used. Viticulture has an eminent economic importance. Wine products, fruits and vegetables are the main export items. Around 70% of European standard varieties are cultivated. Two thirds of white wine and one third of red wine are grown. The Blend 2010 (Statistics Kym Anderson ):
|vine||colour||Synonyms or Moldavian name||hectare|
|Sauvignon Blanc||White||Sotern Marunt, Verdo Belîi||8151|
|Pinot Noir||red||Cerna, Pino Fran, Pino Ceren||6521|
|Chardonnay||White||Wais Noble, Waiser Clevner||5134|
|Feteasca Alba||White||Fetișoară, Păsărească Albă, Poamă Fetei Albă||4334|
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||White||Traminer Musqué, Traminer Rose||2731|
|Pinot Blanc||White||Burgundy Veisser, Pino Belîi||350|
|Muscat Blanc / muscatel||White||-||172|
|Băbească Neagră||red||Poamă Rara Neagră, Rastriopa||80|
|Gamay complexion Fréaux||red||-||55|
|Cot||red||Cagors, Nuar de Presac||39|
|Saperavi Severny||red||Saperavi Severnii||25|
|Muscat de Yaloven||White||Muscat de Ialoveni||20|
|Negru de Yaloven||red||Negru de Ialoveni||15|
|Gamay complexion de Bouze||red||-||10|
|Alb de Yaloven||White||Alb de Ialoveni||2|
|Fetească Neagră||red||Coada Răndunicii, Păsărească Neagră||?|
The geographical and climatic conditions are very favorable for viticulture. Moldova is at the same latitude as the French Burgundy, There is a continental climate with high solar radiation. In 1954, after extensive studies, a professor PI Ivanov divided Moldova into four agricultural-cultural zones with different climates. White wine grapes are mainly produced in the northern Balti region for the production of brandy, fortified wines and simple wines. The central region of Codru with the capital Chisinau is surrounded by forested mountains. Here are more than half of the vineyards and the most famous wineries such as the former tsar estate romanesti,
In the city's famous 65 km underground cellars Cricova store the sparkling wines produced in the winery of the same name as well as an extensive historical wine collection. Among other things, excellent red wines are pressed in this region. The region of Cahul in the south is climatically particularly suitable for red and sweet wines. The fourth region of Purcari (also called Nistreana) is located in the southeast of the country along the western bank of the Nister. She is known for her aging red wines in the Bordeaux style, such as the "Negru de Purcari" produced by the winery of the same name. Towards the end of the 19th century, Purcari wines were delivered to the English royal court, among others.
In contrast to the other former USSR countries, the proportion of dry wines is relatively high, but there are also traditional sweet dessert wines. The famous port wine-like tradition has a two hundred year tradition Kagor, Almost two thirds of the production comes from cooperative wineries. Well-known producers in Moldova are for example Acorex, Aroma, Branesti, Château Vartel, Ciumai, Comrat, Cricova, Dionysos Mereni, Milestii Mici, Purcari, romanesti, Taraclia and Trifesti. Around 90% of wine production is exported; with over 80% for the most part Russia, In March 2006, the Russian government imposed an import ban on Moldovan and Georgian Wine products in force. The ban was officially read because of alleged violations of health regulations (excessive pollution). The embargo was lifted in November 2007. The high export share was, however, greatly reduced in the long term.