The red grape variety comes from Spain. The around 100 Synonyms testify the old age and the wide spread. The most important of which are grouped alphabetically by country (the other main names are marked in bold) Mataro ( Australia. California ); Balsac Noir, Balthazar, Balzac Noir, Beausset, Bon Avis, Catalan, Clairette Noire, Espagnen, Espar, Marseillais, Morvede, Mourvede, Mourvedon, Mourvèdre , Murviedro, Plant de Ledenon, Plant de Saint Gilles ( France ); Negria ( Greece ); Rossola Nera ( Corsica ); Alcallata, Alcayata, Alicante, Benada, Benadu, Berardi, Garrut, Gayata, Gayata Tinta, Mataró , Monastre, Monastrel, Monastrell Garrut, Morastrell, Negrette, Negre Trinchiera, Ros, Tintilla, Torrentes, Trinchiera, Verema, Veremeta, Vereneta ( Spain ).
The variety was discovered by the monk Francisc in 1381 in Empordà (Catalonia) Eiximenis (1340-1409) mentioned together with the Bobal as the most important varieties in Valencia. The name is probably derived from "monasterio" (monastery). This could indicate that the variety was first cultivated and distributed by monks. The exact origin is probably the area around the city of Sagunto in the province of Valencia. Sagunto was an important wine port north of Valencia and was called Murviedro in Catalan until 1877, from which the French main name Mourvèdre is probably derived.
Despite apparently indicative synonyms or morphological It must not be similar to the varieties Bobal. Graciano (Monastrell Menudo), Moristel. Négrette or Rossola Nera be confused. The French variety Mourvèdre (Mataro) is identical, which has been misinterpreted for some time DNA analysis was in doubt. According to analyzes made in 2010, Graciano and Monastrell could be siblings (same parents), one Parent-offspring relationship the two can be excluded. There are also family ties to the Italian variety Vermentino Nero supposed. At probably natural crosses, she was the parent of the varieties Bourrisquou. Epero de Gall. Gorgollasa and Pascale, She was also (as Mourvèdre) crossing partner in the new breeding Mourvèdre Hichle,
The very late ripening, low-yielding vine is sensitive to drought, vulnerable to both mildews. mites and Esca but resistant to Botrytis and Black spots disease, The thick-skinned berries produce alcohol-strong, dark-colored and tannin-rich red wines with aromas of blackberries. The variety is not without problems, because it likes "the face in the sun and the feet in the water". So it needs a lot of sunshine, but also a good water supply. In any case, it is excellently suited or dependent on the Mediterranean climatic conditions with long, hot summers and mild winters.
The largest amount is by far in the country of origin Spain, where it is mostly cultivated in the center and along the Mediterranean coast in the southeast of the country. The largest acreage is in Castile-La Mancha with numerous DO areas and in the Levant with the DO areas Alicante. Jumilla. Valencia and Yecla, It mainly serves as a blending partner with the variety, among other things Bobal, however, is also increasingly being expanded to single varieties. In 2010, a total of 58,406 hectares were recorded in Spain with a downward trend.
The variety was probably introduced to southern France as early as the 16th century and named in Provence after the port city of Mourvèdre mentioned above and in Roussillon after a town of Mataro between Barcelona and Valencia. Then she was in front of the Reblaus- and Mildew disaster widespread in France, but was then extremely reduced (there were only a few hundred hectares left in the 1950s). In 2010, it took place in the regions Languedoc-Roussillon. Provence, southern Rhone and on the island Corsica a total of 9,257 hectares with a continuously increasing tendency (ten years earlier there were 7,634 hectares)
This rapid upswing is also demonstrated by the extensive use of the variety in countless French appellation wines. Mourvèdre is often used with the Carignan ( mazuelo ), Grenache Noir ( Garnacha Tinta ) Cinsault and Syrah blended. It is an additional component, for example, in the wines of Bandol. Cassis. Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Corbières. Cotes de Provence. Cotes du Rhone. Cotes du Roussillon. Faugères. Fitou. Gigondas. Les Baux-de-Provence. Lirac. Luberon. Minervois. palette. Saint-Chinian. Tavel. Vacqueyras. Ventoux and Vin de Corse, In Languedoc in particular there are also pure Mourvèdre wines.
There are further stocks in the countries Turkey (4 ha) and Cyprus (172 ha). The variety is much more widespread overseas. There are cultivated areas in Algeria. Argentina (8 ha), Australia (692 ha), Chile (59 ha), South Africa (403 ha), Tunisia (337 ha) and Uruguay (1 ha), as well as in the United States (404 ha) in the states of Arizona, California, Oregon, Texas, Virginia and Washington. The variety occupied a total of 69,748 hectares in 2010 (ten years earlier it was 76,304 hectares). It thus demonstrated in the worldwide varieties ranking rank 14.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)