Vitae will follow soon - see below sake,
Common name in Europe for the rice wine, In Japanese, the word sake (honoredly spoken as o-sake) only indicates Seishu or Nihonshu, i.e. rice wine, in a narrower sense. Because sake is also a collective term for Wine. beer and alcoholic beverages in general. Colloquially, Nihonshu is common, Seishu is the technical term, so to speak. In order to avoid misunderstandings, these two terms should therefore be used. Despite the name, however, sake is much more like a beer than wine, because the sugar for the ver fermentation has to be unlocked first. Sake is in Japan still the national drink.
A rice wine has been in Japan since the 3rd century BC. Chr. Wet rice cultivation was introduced at this time. Rites of the Shinto religion have been handed down, in which rice was chewed by girls and then spat into vessels. This had a fermentative effect in which the rice starch was converted to sugar. By yeasts one came out of the air spontaneous fermentation, The end product had little alcohol content and was consumed like porridge. From the 5th century onwards fungal cultures for the fermentation used. The production of sake in Japan was initially limited to the imperial court and was gradually transferred to the monasteries. The Gekkeikan brewery from Kyoto has been making sake since 1637.
First the rice grains are “polished”, that is, the layers of bran are removed (Japanese: Sei-mai = polish rice). The stronger or the more this happens, the finer the product. With high-quality sake, up to half of the previous volume is removed. The excess material is marketed as rice flour. Then the kōji (starter culture) is made. For this purpose, part of the rice with the mold Aspergillus oryzae who...