The white grape variety is a new breed between Riesling x Madeleine Royale, Some synonyms indicate that Riesling x Sylvaner, who had been suspected of being a parent for a long time, is wrong. Within the EU, those names are no longer permitted, such as B. Riesling-Sylvaner refer to it. The most important are Müller-Thurgau vine, Müller Thurgau Weiß ( Germany ); Müller-Thurgau Blanc ( France ); Uva di Lauria ( Italy ); Riesling-Silvaner, Riesling x Silvaner, Riesling-Sylvaner ( New Zealand. Switzerland ); Rivaner ( Austria. Luxembourg ), Rizlingszilvani ( Hungary ), Rizvanac, Rizvanac Bijeli ( Croatia ); Rizanec, Rizvanec ( Slovenia ); Muller Thurgau White ( United States ).
Because of its properties, it is a popular crossbreeding partner for new varieties. These include Albalonga. Arnsburger. Bacchus. Diana (1), Faberrebe. Floriánka. Fontanara. Gloria. Goldriesling (2) Grando. good Borner. Helios (1), Hildegardis grape. chancellor. Marie Steiner. striking. Medea. Milia. Montagna. Muscabona. Muscat Bleu. Optima. Ortega. Pálava. pearl. Rabaner. Regner. Reichensteiner. Schantlrebe. Septimer. Tamara. Thekla. Thurling and Würzer, Two mutations are foundling (maturing earlier) and Roter Müller-Thurgau (Beer color).
The determination of parenthood dragged on for decades until in 1996, the paternity of the child, which had been questioned again and again Silvaner proved wrong. The breeder was the Swiss Dr. Hermann Müller-Thurgau (1850-1927) from Tägerwilen in the canton of Thurgau. He was in the period 1867 to 1890 at the Royal School of Fruit and Winegrowing in Geisenheim (Rheingau) active. In issue no. 26 of the magazine “Der Weinbau” from June 24, 1882, he formulated the breeding goal of the cross-breeding experiments: “How important could, for example, be for some wine-growing regions a grape variety that, thanks to the delicious properties of the Riesling grape, makes it safer and earlier The ripening period of the Sylvaner combined. ” Until 1890, the preliminary examination of the new varieties resulting from the Riesling x Silvaner varieties was still carried out in Geisenheim.
In 1891, Hermann Müller-Thurgau came to his home country to found and build the federal institution based on the Geisenheim model Wädenswil appointed in the canton of Zurich. In the same year he had 150 of his seedlings pre-tested in Geisenheim come to Wädenswil. There Heinrich selected Schellenberg (1868-1967) the best seedling No. 58 and propagated it in 1897 under the name "Riesling x Silvaner 1". The Bavarian Court Council August Dern (1858-1930), a former employee of Müller-Thurgau in Geisenheim, brought 100 vines of this new breed back to Germany in 1913 and named them in honor of the breeder "Müller-Thurgau-Rebe" (which, by the way, Müller-Thurgau refused, he always called them after the supposed parents).
Müller-Thurgau himself was skeptical of Riesling x Silvaner parenthood at an early stage and expressed his concerns in a letter to August Dern, whom he accused of "taking the wrong grape variety from Geisenheim" with. The thesis that the variety was not a Riesling x Silvaner hybrid was strengthened early on by the fact that none of the later Geisenheimer, Würzburger and Alzeyer Riesling x Silvaner hybrid corresponded to the character of "Müller-Thurgau" (one of the Geisenheimers Attempts was Multaner ). In 1950 Dr. Heinrich Birk (1898-1973) for the first time on these connections. Dr. Hans Breider (1908-2000) came to the conclusion in 1952 that he could find too few features of the supposed pollen donor "Silvaner". Dr. Heinz-Martin Eichelsbacher (1924-2003) came to the conclusion in 1957, in the context of extensive analyzes, that the “Müller-Thurgau” variety came from the Riesling-Muskateller-Gutedel variety.
For a while, you also adopted a Riesling x Riesling crossbreed. Finally in 1996 on Klosterneuburg Wine Institute in Lower Austria by the biologist Dr. Ferdinand Regner by means of DNA analysis as a father variety Admirable de Courtiller (Chasselas de Courtiller) identified. Through shortly afterwards subsequent analyzes at the institute Geilweilerhof (Palatinate-Germany) has been verified that Dr. Sprinklers examined and also correctly recognized father variety Madeleine Royale (Regner was the first to determine the "right" vine, but it was not correctly named). Both institutes therefore deserve recognition for clarifying the riddle. Finally, in 2010, the Swiss Dr. Joseph. Vouillamoz completed the family tree of Müller-Thurgau (descent of the Madeleine Royale).
The early ripening, productive vine is susceptible to the real and the wrong mildew. Botrytis such as Red burner, It prefers cool locations and is therefore very suitable for northern wine-growing regions. The variety produces fruity-fresh, rather low-acid white wines of light yellow color with a subtle nutmeg, It is quite often called mass support used, but with a corresponding reduction in yield and expansion also has quality potential. Müller-Thurgau is one of the most successful not only in Germany, but worldwide new varieties, which was widely cultivated in many countries from the mid-20th century.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Germany created many test facilities. But it was not until 1970 that it was classified as a recommended variety in all German growing areas. From 1975 to 1995 it was always at the top of the German grape variety index and was only then replaced by Riesling. Since then, the trend has been falling, but in 2009 it was still the second most common grape variety with 13,628 hectares of vineyards. Above all, it is in the growing areas Rheinhessen. to bathe. palatinate. Moselle and Franconia common. In Austria it is grown in all wine-growing areas on 2,102 hectares with a downward trend.
There are further stocks in Europe in England (43 ha), France. Italy mainly in Trentino-South Tyrol, (1,312 ha), Croatia (60 ha), Luxembourg (184 ha), Moldova (173 ha), Russia (106 ha), Switzerland (493 ha), Slovakia (932 ha), Slovenia (144 ha), Spain. Czech Republic (1,572 ha) and Hungary (2,098 ha). There are stocks in overseas Japan (172 ha), Canada (7 ha) and New Zealand (79 ha), as well as in the United States California. Oregon and Washington, In 2010, the variety occupied a total of 22,753 hectares of vineyards with a downward trend (ten years earlier it was 33,587 hectares). It thus proves worldwide varieties ranking rank 37.
Sources: Main source regarding history and parentage: reader forum of the magazine "Das Deutsche Weinmagazin" 1998, issue 22, pages 8-9. Courtesy of Dr. Joachim Schmid , Department of Vine Breeding and Vine Grafting, Research Institute Geisenheim , Helmut Becker , 1976, Genetic constitution, cultivation and performance of the Müller-Thurgau grape variety, Die Weinwissenschaft, 31.Jg., 26-37. Heinrich Müller-Thurgau , F. Koblet: Crossing results for vines. Agricultural Yearbook Switzerland 1924, 499-562. Ferdinand Regner , 1996, Announcements Klosterneuburg .
Images : Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)