The white variety comes from the Mediterranean; possibly from Greece or Italy. Around 200 Synonyms testify to the old age and the worldwide distribution of the vine. The main alphabetically grouped by country are Muscat de Berkain, Muscat de Fandouk, Muscat El Adda ( Algeria ); Moscatel Bianco, Moscatel Blanco, Moscatel de Alejandría, ( Argentina ); Gordo, Lexia, Muscat Gordo Blanco, Muscat of Alexandria ( Australia ); Moscatel de Alejandria ( Chile ); Cibeben Muskateller, Muscat-Damascener, White Spaniard, White Zibeben-Muscateller, Zibeben Muskateller ( Germany ); Acherfield's Early Muscat, Muscat Bowood ( England ); Augibi Blanc, Jubi Blanc, Muscat à Gros Grains, Muscat d'Alexandrie Blanc, Muscat de Jerusalem, Muscat de Rome, Muscat d'Espagne, Muscat Grec, Muscat Romain ( France ), Angliko, Apostoliatiko, Moschato Alexandrias, Moschato Limnou ( Greece ); Gerosolimitana Bianca, Gordo Zibibo, Gorosolimitana Bianca, Isidori, Moscatel d'Alessandria, Moscatel de Jesus, Moscatel Romano, Moscatellone, Moscato di Pantelleria, Moscato Francese, Moscato Gordo, Paradisia, Seralamanna, Uva di Pantelleria, Zibibibaria, Zibibibellib ( Italy ); Cibib, Cibib Muskatan Bijeli ( Croatia ); Moscatel de Setúbal, Moscatel Graúdo ( Portugal ), Tamîioasa de Alexandria ( Romania ); Aleksandrijski Muskat ( Russia ); Gordo, Moscatel Blanco, Moscatel de Alejandría, Moscatel de Málaga, Moscatel de Chipiona, Moscatel de Grano Gordo, Moscatel de Malaga, Moscatel Flamenco, Moscatel Gordo, Moscatel Gordo Blanco, Moscatel Gordo Morado, Salamanca, Zibibbo Blanco ( Spain ); Hanepoot, Roode Hanepoot, White Muscat of Alexandria, White Hanepoot ( South Africa ); Meski, Albillo di Toro, Argelino, Muscat de Raf-Raf ( Tunisia ), Iskendiriye Misketi ( Turkey ); Alexandriai Muskotály, Daroczy Musko ( Hungary ); Malaga ( Cyprus ).
Despite morphological It must not be similar to the variety Moscato di Terracina or the variety Muscat d'Hamburg (with the confusing synonym Black Muscat of Alexandria). According to 2018 last DNA analysis is the variety from a presumably natural cross between Axina de Tres Bias aka Heftakilo (red) x Muscat Blanc (white) came into being. color mutations are Muscat d'Alexandrie Red (Red Hanepoot in South Africa or Flame Muscat in California) and Black Muscat of Alexandria (known in England since the 19th century). In any case, the Muscat d'Alexandrie variety has its genetic traces worldwide as a parent to numerous natural ones intersections as well as a partner of new varieties passed:
In any case, it is a very old variety that is widespread in large numbers mainly in many countries in the Mediterranean region, but also overseas. The hypothesis that the name refers to the city of Alexandria and thus to an origin in Egypt indicates, but is unlikely. The claim mentioned in some sources that from the variety of favorite wine Cleopatra was pressed is nothing more than a gimmick. According to another hypothesis, they are said to be long before the turn of the times Phoenicians have brought to southern Italy. The Romans then spread it in the Mediterranean countries. It is also (like Muscat Blanc) with that of Pliny the Elder (23-79) mentioned ancient variety Vitis apiana connected.
The vine was in under the name Zibibbo Sicily known in the 16th century and was dated from Venice botanist Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1501-1577) (who was one of the first to describe the tomato imported from America in 1544). The name Zibibbo is derived from the Arabic "Zabib" (Zibebe = raisin). Under this name it is still used today in the wines of the DOC area on the Sicilian island Pantelleria used. The hypothesis of a descent from South Africa because of a Cape Zibbib allegedly located there is obsolete (there is no such one, there is a Cape Zbib in Tunisia). The main name Muscat d'Alexandrie first appeared in Paris in 1713 and has prevailed.
The late-ripening, productive vine with brownish-reddish, sugar-rich berries is susceptible to the real mildew. Botrytis and insect infestation, It loves warmth and is therefore for hot ones climates very suitable. The variety produces high-alcohol white wines with subtle rose and nutmeg (more restrained than with Muscat Blanc). The variety is mainly used for the production of sweet wines used. But it is also called table grape and for the production of raisins used. In northern countries like Belgium, the Netherlands or England it is used for greenhouse cultivation, for which it is excellently suited. In South America it also serves for the distillation of fires like Pisco and singani, as well as the production of RTK (Rectified concentrated grape must).
There are areas under cultivation in Europe and North Africa France especially Languedoc-Roussillon (2,610 ha), Greece. Israel. Italy especially in the south and the islands of Sardinia and Sicily (1,521 ha), Morocco (3,669 ha), Portugal (647 ha), Spain especially Andalusia and Levante (8,237 ha), Tunisia. Turkey and Cyprus (120 ha). There are acreages in overseas Argentina (2,939 ha), Australia (2,043 ha), Bolivia. Brazil (7 ha), Chile (1,090 ha), ecuador. California. Colombia. Peru. South Africa (2,167 ha) and Uruguay, In 2010, the variety occupied a total of 26,336 hectares of vineyards. Compared to 1990 with 64,224 hectares at the time, there was an extreme reduction of around 60%. It thus proves worldwide varieties ranking rank 35.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Right: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)