The white grape comes from the Mediterranean area; possibly from Greece or Italy. Around 200 Synonyms testify to the high age and worldwide distribution of the vine. The most important alphabetically grouped by country are Muscat de Berkain, Muscat de Fandouk, Muscat El Adda ( Algeria ); Moscatel Bianco, Moscatel Blanco, Moscatel de Alejandría, ( Argentina ); Gordo, Lexia, Muscat Gordo Blanco, Muscat of Alexandria ( Australia ); Moscatel de Alejandría ( Chile ); Cibeben Muskateller, Muscat-Damascene, White Spaniard, White Zibeben Muscateller, Zibeben Muskateller ( Germany ); Acherfield's Early Nutmeg, Muscat Bowood ( England ); Augibi Blanc, Jubi Blanc, Muscat à Gros Grains, Muscat d'Alexandrie Blanc, Muscat de Jerusalem, Muscat de Rome, Muscat d'Espagne, Muscat Grec, Muscat Romain ( France ), Angliko, Apostoliatiko, Moschato Alexandria, Moschato Limnou ( Greece ); Gerosolimitana Bianca, Gordo Zibibo, Gorosolimitana Bianca, Isidore, Moscatel d'Alessandria, Moscatel de Jesus, Moscatel Romano, Moscatellone, Moscato di Pantelleria, Moscato Francese, Moscato Gordo, Paradisia, Seralamanna, Uva di Pantelleria, Zibibbo, Zibibbo de Pantellaria, Zibibo ( Italy ); Cibib, Cibib Muscatan Bijeli ( Croatia ); Moscatel de Setúbal, Moscatel Graúdo ( Portugal ), Tamîioasa de Alexandria ( Romania ); Aleksandrian Muscat ( Russia ); Gordo, Moscatel Blanco, Moscatel de Alejandría, Moscatel de Málaga, Moscatel de Chipiona, Moscato de Grano Gordo, Moscatel de Malaga, Moscatel Flamenco, Moscatel Gordo, Moscatel Gordo Blanco, Moscatel Gordo Morado, Salamanca, Zibibbo Blanco ( Spain ); Hanepoot, Roode Hanepoot, White Muscat of Alexandria, White Hanepoot South Africa ); Meski, Albillo di Toro, Argelino, Muscat de Raf-Raf ( Tunisia ), Iskendiriye Misketi ( Turkey ); Alexandriai Muskotály, Daroczy Musko ( Hungary ); Malaga ( Cyprus ).
Despite morphological She may not resemble the variety Moscato di Terracina or the variety Muscat d'Hamburg (confused with the confusing synonym Black Muscat of Alexandria). According to last 2018 took place DNA analysis is the variety from a presumably natural cross between Axina de Tres bias aka Heftakilo (red) x Muscat Blanc (white) emerged. color mutations are Muscat d'Alexandrie Red (Red Hanepoot in South Africa and Flame Muscat in California) and Black Muscat of Alexandria (known since the 19th century in England). In any case, the variety Muscat d'Alexandrie has its genetic traces worldwide as the parent of numerous natural intersections as well as partner of new varieties passed:
In any case, it is a very old variety, which is widely used mainly in many countries of the Mediterranean, but also overseas. The hypothesis that the name refers to the city of Alexandria and thus to an origin in Egypt indicates, but is unlikely. The statement mentioned in some sources, that from the sort of the favorite wine The Cleopatra was pressed, is no more than a gag. According to another hypothesis, they should be long before the turn of the Phoenicians brought to southern Italy. The Romans then spread it in the Mediterranean countries. It will also (like Muscat Blanc) with the Pliny the Elder (23-79) mentioned antique variety Vitis apiana connected.
Under the name Zibibbo, the vine was in Sicily Known in the 16th century and was designed by Venice botanist Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1501-1577) mentions (by the way, he was one of the first to describe tomato imported from America in 1544). The name Zibibbo derives from the Arabic "Zabib" (Zibebe = raisin). Under this name, she is still in the wines of the DOC area on the Sicilian island Pantelleria used. The hypothesis of a descent from South Africa because of a supposedly there Cape Zibbib is obsolete (there is no such, there is a Cape Zbib in Tunisia). The main name Muscat d'Alexandrie then first appeared in 1713 in Paris and has prevailed.
The late-ripening, high-yielding vine with brownish-reddish, sugar-rich berries is prone to true mildew. Botrytis and insect infestation, She loves the heat and is therefore hot climates very suitable. The variety yields alcoholic white wines with subtle rose and nutmeg (restrained as in Muscat Blanc). The variety is mainly used for the production of sweet wines used. But it is also called table grape and for the production of raisins used. In northern countries like Belgium, the Netherlands or England It is used for hothouse breeding, which makes it ideal. In South America, she also serves for the distillation from fires like Pisco and singani, as well as the production of RTK (Rectified concentrated grape must).
Acreage in Europe or North Africa, there are in France especially Languedoc-Roussillon (2,610 ha), Greece. Israel. Italy especially in the south and the islands of Sardinia and Sicily (1.521 ha), Morocco (3,669 ha), Portugal (647 ha), Spain especially Andalusia and Levante (8,237 ha), Tunisia. Turkey and Cyprus (120 ha). In overseas, there are cultivated areas in Argentina (2,939 ha), Australia (2,043 ha), Bolivia. Brazil (7 ha), Chile (1,090 ha), ecuador. California. Colombia. Peru. South Africa (2,167 ha) and Uruguay, The variety occupied in 2010 a total of 26,336 hectares of vineyards. Compared to the year 1990 with then 64,224 hectares, there was an extreme reduction of about 60%. It occupies it in the worldwide varieties ranking the rank 35.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Picture right: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)