Means "from two origins" or "created by mixing" or colloquially (sometimes pejorative) and Mischling, Bastard or Blendling. In the natural scientific linguistic usage it is understood as a living being (plant, animal), which through crossing originated from parents of different breeding lines (genus = genus or species = species). Spontaneous crosses created spontaneously in nature without human intervention are referred to as natural hybrids, especially in plants. In viticulture, hybrids are understood to mean only the crossing results between different species or genera. Strictly speaking, crosses of the same species are already hybrids (intraspecific = within the species). However, this is usually not interpreted as such, but as hybrids understood only interspecific or intergeneric crosses.
In the case of plants, this does not look as spectacular as in animals and is not directly recognizable even to experts. This is quite different with hybrids in the animal world, the most well-known examples are mules (donkey mare x horse stallion), mule (horse mare x donkey stallion) and Liger (male lion x female tiger).
Left picture: By Алексей Шилин - own work, public domain, link
Hybrids in the viticultural sense are crosses of two different species. At the first crossing, we speak of primary hybrids. As a rule, hybrids with American genes (eg Vitis cinerea, Vitis labrusca, Vitis riparia, etc.) with the desired properties are already crossed with European cultivars (Vitis vinifera) in new breeds. The result is secondary hybrids. Most of the partially blue and mushroom-resistant varieties were created towards the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Many own the intrusive Foxton what disqualifies her, at least in Europe, for winemaking. These varieties created in the US are called American hybrids, although European genes are also included. These are z. B. Agawam. albania. Alden. America. Blanc Du Bois. Campbell Early. Cayuga White. Clinton. Concord. Elvira. Delaware. Dutchess. Herbemont. Hopkins. Horizon. Iona. Isabella. Jacquez. Melody. Missouri Riesling. Munson. Niagara. Norton. Noah. Orlando Seedless. Othello. Olmo grapes. Taylor. Traminette and Venus,
The sometimes complex crossbred products of European breeders of the late 19th and early 20th century are referred to as French hybrids, because especially in France but also in Spain, Hungary and Russia, the problem of bereavement due to the breeding defoliate resistant hybrid varieties for winegrowing. Of course, American species had to be included. Valuable help was provided by, among others, the US botanist Thomas Volney Munson (1843-1913) re documents, as well as the immigrant Hermann from Switzerland to Missouri Hunter (1844-1895) regarding American hybrids, which were then used to cross European varieties.
Complex crosses of hybrid varieties with Europeans Vines or other hybrid varieties (secondary hybrids, multi-hybrids) Aurore. Baco Blanc. Baco Noir. Bellandais. Cascade. Chambourcin. Chancellor. Chardonel. chelois. Colobel. Couderc Noir. De...