The red grape variety comes from Italy, The approximately 100 Synonyms testify especially the old age and the wide distribution of the vine. The most important are numerous names with Nebbiolo and complementary name part as among others Nebbiolo del Piemonte, and Chiavennasca, Lampia, Marchesano, Michet, Picotender, Picotendre, Picotendro, Picotero, Picotenero, Picoutendro, Picoutendro Maschio, Picoutener, Picutener, Poctener, Pugnet, Prunent , Spana, Spana Commune, Spanna, Spanna Grossa and Vercelli. It may, despite seemingly suggestive synonyms or morphological or name similarities not with the varieties Chatus (Nebbiolo di Dronero, Nebbiolo Pairolè), Croatina (Nebbiolo di Gattinara), Dolcetto (Nebbiolo) or Nebbiolo rosé be confused. For the white variety Arneis (with synonym Nebbiolo Bianco) is not a color mutation (or the other way around). There are four different Nebbiolo varieties / Clones :
According to done in 2004 DNA analysis The first three proved to be genetically identical. However, there are considerable differences with Nebbiolo Rosé. The ancestry of Nebbiolo is unknown, at least one parent is probably already extinct. According to the DNA analyzes, there are relationships with many varieties from Piedmont and Lombardy, which is why Nebbiolo as leading variety applies. The variety Bubbierasco comes from a crossroads Nebbiolo x Bianchetta di Saluzzo, A Parent-offspring relationship are there with the varieties Brugnola. Freisa. Nebbiolo rosé. Negrera. Neretto di Bairo. Pignola Valtellinese. Rossola Nera and Vespolina, One of them could have been a parent of Nebbiolo, all others are direct offspring. Nebbiolo was also crossing partner of the new breeds Bric and Ruby Bolgarskii,
The of Pliny the Elder (23-79) mentioned "Spionia" (Spanna) is mentioned as a possible ancestor, for which there is no evidence. In any case, it is a very old grape variety, from the 13th to the 19th century in many documents in Piedmont in the spellings Neblorii, Nebiolo, Nubliolio, Nibiolii, Nebiolus and Nebiolio, as well as Chiavennasca, Prünent, Picotendro and Spanna is called , Among other things, the medieval author described Petrus de Crescentiis (1230-1320) in 1303 the grape as "delicious" and the wine from it with "excellent". The special position of the variety occupies a statute of the community La Morra from the year 1431. In this everyone is threatened with a heavy fine and in case of recurrence even the loss of the right hand, which cuts off only a single Nebbiolo grape from the vineyard.
The very late ripening vine is sensitive to late frost due to the early budding. The name derives from the Italian word for fog (nebbia) or snow (neve) and refers like the synonym "Prunent" on the white-gray wax coating (scent) of the berries. After a second variant, he points to the fog, which can already exist at the late maturity. In damp, blooming weather, it tends to Verrieseln, It produces acid and tannic red wines with aromas of chocolate, violets, cherries, liquorice and roses that have high storage potential. Nebbiolo is one of the best grape varieties in the world, the Cépages classy,
The great wine potential of this variety was created by the famous French oenologist Louis Oudart In the mid-19th century, he recognized the dry style of today's famous DOCG wines Barbaresco and Barolo created. Until then, she was mainly expanded sweetly. In Italy today it is mainly in the regions aosta Valley. Lombardy and Piedmont (here often under Chiavennasca or Spanna) cultivated. There it is often with a high proportion, among other things in the DOC / DOCG wines Albugnano. Barbaresco. Barolo. Boca. Bramaterra. Canavese. Carema. Colline Novaresi. Coste della Sesia. Fara. Gattinara. ghemme. Langhe. Lessona. Nebbiolo d'Alba. Roero. Sizzano and Valtellina contain. Despite the high quality potential, in 2010, it occupied only 5,536 hectares of vineyards, which is due to their high standards regarding sun and limestone soils.
Outside of Italy, there are only relatively small Nebbiolo stocks with individual producers or vineyards with very few hectares. That's in Europe France (Languedoc) Switzerland (Valais) and Austria, Overseas, there are also smaller stocks in the US States Idaho. California. New Mexico. Oregon. Pennsylvania. Tennessee. Virginia and Washington, as in Argentina. Australia. Chile. Canada. Mexico. New Zealand. South Africa and Uruguay, The variety occupied in 2010 a total of 5,992 hectares of vineyards. Compared to 1990 with 5,047 hectares at the time, this means an increase of around 20%. It occupies the worldwide varieties ranking the rank 103.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)