The red grape variety comes from Italy, The around 100 Synonyms testify above all to the old age and the wide distribution of the vine. The most important are numerous names with Nebbiolo and supplementary names such as Nebbiolo del Piemonte, Chiavennasca, Lampia, Marchesano, Michet, Picotender, Picotendre, Picotendro, Picotèner, Picotenero, Picoutendro, Picoutendro Maschio, Picoutener, Picutener, Poctenerent, Pugnet , Spana, Spana Commune, Spanna, Spanna Grossa and Vercelli. Despite apparently suggesting synonyms or morphological or name similarities not to the varieties Chatus (Nebbiolo di Dronero, Nebbiolo Pairolè), Croatina (Nebbiolo di Gattinara), Dolcetto (Nebbiolo) or Nebbiolo rosé be confused. With the white variety Arneis (with the synonym Nebbiolo Bianco) it is not a color mutation (or the other way around). There are four different types of Nebbiolo / Clones :
According to 2004 DNA analysis the first three have proven to be genetically identical. With Nebbiolo Rosé, however, there are considerable differences. The origin of the Nebbiolo is unknown, at least one parent is probably already extinct. According to DNA analysis, there are relationships with many varieties from Piedmont and Lombardy, which is why Nebbiolo as leading variety applies. The variety Bubbierasco comes from a cross between Nebbiolo x Bianchetta di Saluzzo, A Parent-offspring relationship there are with the varieties Brugnola. Freisa. Nebbiolo rosé. Negrera. Neretto di Bairo. Pignola Valtellinese. Rossola Nera and Vespolina, So one of them could have been a parent of the Nebbiolo, all others are direct descendants. Nebbiolo was also a crossing partner of the new varieties Bric and Rubin Bolgarskii,
The of Pliny the Elder (23-79) mentioned "Spyia" (Spanna) is mentioned as a possible ancestor, for which there is no evidence. In any case, it is a very old grape variety that was mentioned in many documents in Piedmont from the 13th to the 19th century in the spellings Neblorii, Nebiolo, Nubliolio, Nibiolii, Nebiolus and Nebiolio, as well as Chiavennasca, Prünent, Picotendro and Spanna , Among other things, the medieval author referred Petrus de Crescentiis (1230-1320) in 1303 the grape as "delicious" and the wine from it with "excellent". The special status of the variety is evidenced by a statute of the municipality of La Morra from 1431. It threatens everyone with a heavy fine and, if repeated, even the loss of the right hand who only cuts a single Nebbiolo grape from the vineyard.
The very late ripening vine is sensitive to late frost due to the early budding. The name is derived from the Italian word for fog (nebbia) or snow (neve) and, like the synonym "Prunent", refers to the white-gray wax coating (fragrance) of the berries. According to a second variant, it indicates the mist that may already exist when it ripens late. When the flowering weather is wet, it tends to Verrieseln, It produces acid and tannic red wines with aromas of chocolate, violets, cherries, liquorice and roses that have high storage potential. Nebbiolo is one of the best grape varieties in the world Cépages nobles,
The great wine potential of this variety was developed by the famous French enologist Louis Oudart Recognized in the mid-19th century as the dry style of today's famous DOCG wines Barbaresco and Barolo created. Until then, it was mainly sweet. In Italy today it is mainly in the regions aosta Valley. Lombardy and Piedmont (here often under Chiavennasca or Spanna) cultivated. There it is often found with a high percentage in DOC / DOCG wines Albugnano. Barbaresco. Barolo. Boca. Bramaterra. Canavese. Carema. Colline Novaresi. Coste della Sesia. Fara. Gattinara. ghemme. Langhe. Lessona. Nebbiolo d'Alba. Roero. Sizzano and Valtellina contain. Despite the high quality potential, it only occupied 5,536 hectares of vineyards in 2010, which is due to its high standards in terms of plenty of sun and marl limestone soils.
Outside of Italy there are only relatively small Nebbiolo stocks with individual producers or vineyards with very few hectares. These are in Europe France (Languedoc) Switzerland (Valais) and Austria, There are also smaller stocks overseas in the United States Idaho. California. New Mexico. Oregon. Pennsylvania. Tennessee. Virginia and Washington, as in Argentina. Australia. Chile. Canada. Mexico. New Zealand. South Africa and Uruguay, The variety occupied a total of 5,992 hectares of vineyards in 2010. Compared to 1990 with 5,047 hectares at the time, this means an increase of around 20%. It documents worldwide varieties ranking rank 103.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)