These include in viticulture United States. South America. Australia. New Zealand and South Africa (you could also Canada should be expected). These areas were discovered by the great voyages of discovery from the beginning of the 16th century viniculture developed. The colonists had above all a religious motivation for viticulture, namely around altar wine to create. On the North American continent, especially on the east coast, there were numerous forests sprawling Wild vines, a specific cultivation or winemaking was unknown to the indigenous people. Due to the peculiarity of the American vines do not make drinkable wine from it. The wines pressed from it had the strawberry aroma or the unpleasant for European taste Foxton, That is why European varieties started to be planted everywhere. But mostly this was unsuccessful because the phylloxera. fungal diseases how mildew, other vine diseases and extreme climatic conditions made most attempts fail. The causes remained unknown for centuries.
It worked better in the south, where these diseases and pests did not exist to this extent. There were indigenous vines in Central America, but they were only used for consumption, because cultivated viticulture was unknown here as well. The first area to cultivate European vines was the Aztec empire at that time on the 2,000 meter high plain in the central area Mexico, Here the Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortez (1485-1547) probably had the first vines planted as early as 1522. Most sources, however, indicate the year 1540, when Franciscan monks used the historic Misión ( Listán Prieto ) was introduced. As a result, this was then in Argentina. Chile. Peru and continued in other South American countries. Mostly by missionaries from various Roman Catholic monastic orders, vineyards became, among other things, in today's US states Virginia (1619), New Mexico (1629) and California (1769).
The Dutchman Jan van Riebeeck (1619-1677) planted the first vines near Cape Town in 1655, that was the beginning in South Africa, The governor is considered the father of South African viticulture Simon van der Stel (1639-1712) who became the famous winery in 1685 Constantia founded. From 1788 onwards Australia opened to wine growing when an English convict ship under Captain Arthur Phillip landed in Sydney Harbor. And then in 1819 followed New Zealand, where vines from Australia were planted on the North Island. Viticulture in the New World countries reached its first high points 200 years ago. Wines from South Africa were delivered to European rulers such as the Russian tsars in the 18th century and wines from Chile to the Spanish royal court. In the 19th century, wines from Argentina occupied top positions at world exhibitions and won many gold medals.
But then things got a little quiet from the beginning of the 20th century, and a new beginning didn't start again until the 1960s. Robert, among others, deserves special mention as pioneering viticulture pioneers Mondavi (1913-2008) and Joe Heitz (1919-2000) in Napa Valley, California, the brothers Gallo in Central Valley, California, Max Schubert (1915-1994) in Australia, as well as James Busby (1802-1871) in New Zealand. These men applied new viticulture techniques and gave important impulses. They drew on the many years of experience of the traditional wine-growing countries of Italy, France, Spain and Germany and introduced European varieties.
There are sometimes big differences in viticulture and winemaking between the old and the new world, but one cannot speak of general and always valid customs. A common feature of the New World countries is that you may be more willing to experiment and try new techniques. In addition, the wine laws, which are not so narrow, often allow producers much more leeway. Especially in the countries of the southern hemisphere (where the harvest takes place between February and April), the temperatures are consistently higher than in Europe, which is particularly beneficial for the red wines. The tannins in the wines are mostly softer and more mature. The climatic conditions are not as volatile as in Europe, what the differences in the vintages makes less.
Automation methods such as machine vintage and even pruning, as well as the term precision viticulture were developed in the USA. The geographical origin does not have the same meaning as in Europe. The wines are produced more varietal and fruity. the toast flavor (Wood tone) through Barrique is often given great importance in the New World. There is also a significant difference in the fermentation, temperatures are often much lower in the New World. Both varieties there has been more and more alignment in recent decades finishing has also become the standard. See also under Africa. Asia. Europe. South America and tropics, as well as under Wine production volumes,