These include viticulture USA. South America. Australia. New Zealand and South Africa (you could also Canada should be expected). These areas were developed from the beginning of the 16th century through the great discovery and conquest trips for viticulture. Above all, the colonists had a religious motivation for viticulture, namely around altar wine to create. On the North American continent (especially on the east coast) there were numerous, proliferating in the forests Wild vines However, targeted cultivation and vinification was unknown among the natives. The colonists could due to the nature of the American vines do not get a drinkable wine from it. That's why people started growing European varieties everywhere. But mostly this was not successful, because the phylloxera. fungal diseases as mildew, other vine diseases and extreme climatic conditions caused most attempts to fail. The causes remained unknown for centuries.
It worked better in the south, where these diseases and pests did not exist to that extent. In Central America, there were local vines, but these were only used for consumption, because even here cultivated viticulture was unknown. The first area cultivating European vines was the then Aztec empire on the 2,000-meter-high plain in the central Mexico, Here, the Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortez (1485-1547) probably planted the first vines as early as 1522. However, most of the sources indicate the year 1540, in which the Franciscan monks gave the historical Misión ( Listán Prieto ) was introduced. As a result, this was then in Argentina. Chile. Peru and also continued in other South American countries. Mostly by missionaries of various Roman Catholic monastic orders were vineyards, inter alia, in today's US states Virginia (1619), New Mexico (1629) and California (1769) created.
The Dutchman Jan van Riebeeck (1619-1677) planted the first vines near Cape Town in 1655, which was the beginning of South Africa, The father of South African viticulture, however, is Governor Simon van der Stel (1639-1712), the famous winery in 1685 Constantia founded. From 1788 was Australia opened for viticulture, as an English convict ship under Captain Arthur Phillip landed in the harbor of Sydney. And then in 1819 followed New Zealand where Australian vines were planted on the North Island. The viticulture in the countries of the new world reached already 200 years ago the first highlights. Wines from South Africa were delivered in the 18th century to European ruling houses such as the Russian Tsar's Court and wines from Chile to the Spanish King. In the 19th century, wines from Argentina took top places in world exhibitions and won many gold medals.
But then it was from the beginning of the 20th century a little quiet, a new beginning was only from the 1960s. Particularly noteworthy as pioneering viticulture pioneers include Robert Mondavi (1913-2008) and Joe Heitz (1919-2000) in Napa Valley, California, the brothers Gallo in central California, Max Schubert (1915-1994) in Australia, as well as James Busby (1802-1871) in New Zealand. These men used new viticulture techniques and provided important impulses. They relied on the many years of experience of the traditional wine-growing countries Italy, France, Spain and Germany and introduced European varieties.
There are some major differences in viticulture and winemaking between the Old and New World, but one can not speak of general and always valid practices. One commonality of the New World countries is that you may be more willing to experiment and try new techniques. In addition, the not so tightly defined wine laws often allow the producer much more leeway. Particularly in the countries of the southern hemisphere (where the harvest takes place between February and April), the temperatures are consistently higher than in Europe, which especially benefits the red wines. The tannins in the wines are usually softer and more mature. The climatic conditions are not subject to such large fluctuations as in Europe, what the differences in the vintages makes less.
Automation methods such as machine vintage and even pruning, as well as the term precision viticulture were developed in the US. The geographical origin does not have the same meaning as in Europe. The wines are rather varietal and fruity produced. the toast flavor (Wood tone) through Barrique is often given high importance in the New World. A substantial difference exists also in the fermentation The temperatures are often much lower in the New World. Both varieties In recent decades, more and more alignment has taken place finishing has also become the standard. See also below Africa. Asia. Europe. South America and tropics, as well as under Wine production volumes,