The English sailor James Cook (1728-1779) took in 1769 the existing of two main islands land for England in possession. The Anglican missionary Samuel Marsden planted the first vines at Kerikeri on the northeastern coast of the North Island in 1819, leaving him out Australia had brought. When Charles Darwin (1809-1882) landed in 1835 from the ship Beagle just at this point, he saw (as he later wrote) healthy vines. James Busby (1802-1871), who had already founded the Australian winegrowing, not far from Waitangi a vineyard. He produced the first significant quantities of wine and is considered the first producer. Auckland's winegrowing area was created by immigrants from Dalmatia, and even today Croatian families are an integral part of New Zealand's viticulture. Such were also the founders of today's largest New Zealand wineries Montana and Nobilo,
The Italian enologist Romeo Bragato (1858-1914) determined by extensive travel the most suitable areas for viticulture and was later appointed state wine director. In this capacity he founded a research institute. In 1876 the real one became mildew and in 1895 the phylloxera introduced. Special contribution to the fight against the insect was made by Romeo Bragato. As a measure were mainly reblausresistente hybrids planted, even in 1960, the most common grape variety was the red Isabella (called here Albany Surprise). From the end of the 19th century to 1919 there was a decided by referendum prohibition (Alcohol ban), the turn for the abolition brought returning soldiers. Until the 1970s, however, the consumption of wine was prohibited in public, inter alia, in traffic vehicles (trains, buses, etc.), theaters and airports.
Until 1960 there were bizarre laws, so only hotels were allowed to sell wine and a single person could buy a maximum of twelve bottles. It was common practice to dilute wine with water, which was banned in 1980. But since then, the New Zealand viticulture has taken quantitatively, but especially qualitatively very large upswing. The wine law is based on the Australian. In the case of grape variety, at least 75% of this variety must be included on the label. The requirements for winemaking are very liberal. Allowed are enrich. deacidification and leavening, The cellar master enjoys a higher reputation than the one responsible for the vineyard. There are no yield restrictions and artificial ones irrigation is fully permitted. The fertile soil is mostly of volcanic origin. There are heavy rainfall in summer and autumn. The climate is quite different between the warmer North Island and the colder but sunnier South Island.
The viticulture remained limited until 1973 on North Iceland. South Island is home to the Otago region southernmost vineyards of the world. New Zealand is also the easternmost wine-growing country due to the close-by date. The Geographical Indications (Wine and Spirits) Registration Act 2006 replaces the old Geographical Indication and Registration Law. The wine-growing areas extend over a length of about 1,200 kilometers from north to south across the two islands. The hierarchical structure is Country (New Zealand), Zone (North Island, South Island, East Coast), Region and Sub-Region. The regions in this order are:
North Island with capital Wellington
South Island with main town Christchurch
In 2012, the vineyard covered 38,000 hectares, of which 1.940 million hectoliters of wine were produced. This is a huge increase of almost four times over 2000 with 11,000 hectares (see also under Wine production volumes ). Noteworthy is the role of New Zealand as a pioneer in the use of screw cap already from the 1980s. In 2001 the "Screwcape Initiative" was founded. And in 2005, two of three New Zealand bottles with screw caps were already bottled. About 70% of white wines are produced. The best are the Sauvignon Blancs of Marlborough, which have established the fame of New Zealand. But a good part of it is Bag-in-Box Wines, From the 1960s, European varieties were forced, especially the Müller-Thurgau made a splash initially and was for a long time the most common grape variety. Today, it ranks at the bottom in terms of area and is mainly used for simple mass wines, Of the Blend 2010:
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||White||-||311|
|Muscat Blanc / Muscat Hogg||White||-||135|
|Tribidrag / Zinfandel||red||-||4|
|Garnacha Tinta||red||Grenache Noir||2|
In Lincoln, South Island, the Center for Viticulture and Oenology research and teaching institute will become the Department of Research Lincoln University to chat. In 1975, the organization WINZ (The Wine Institute of New Zealand) was founded, but in the meantime renamed NZ Winegrowers. This exerts a tremendous influence on the quality and image of New Zealand viticulture. All wineries must belong to her. The four dominant companies with about 90% of production are Corbans. Montana. Nobilo and Villa Maria, Other well-known producers are Ata Rangi, Babich, Cloudy Bay. Goldwater Estate. gravitas. Hunter's, Isabel Estate, Jackson Estate, Kemblefield, Kumeu River, Lincoln, Martinborough Vineyard, Matawhero. Matua Valley, Millton, Mission Estate. Morton Estate. nautilus. Neudorf Vineyards, Ngatarawa, Pask, Palliser Estate Pegasus Bay, Rippon, Seyfried Estate, Stonecroft, Te Mata, Millton, Trinity Hill. Vidal Estate. Waimea Estates, Wairau River.