The English navigator James Cook (1728-1779) took possession of the country, which consisted of two main islands, for England in 1769. The Anglican missionary Samuel Marsden (1765-1838) became the first at Kerikeri on the northeast coast of the North Island in 1819 vines which he planted out Australia brought along. When Charles Darwin (1809-1882) landed at this point from the Beagle ship in 1835, he saw (as he later wrote) healthy vines. James Busby (1802-1871), who had already founded Australian viticulture, established a vineyard not far from it near Waitangi. He produced the first significant quantities of wine and is considered the first producer. The wine-growing region around Auckland was created by immigrants from Dalmatia, and Croatian families are still an integral part of New Zealand's viticulture. Such were also the founders of what is now one of the largest New Zealand wineries Montana and Nobilo,
The Italian oenologist Romeo Bragato (1858-1914) determined through extensive travels the areas most suitable for viticulture and was later appointed state wine director. In this role, he founded a research institute. In 1876 the real one mildew and in 1895 the phylloxera introduced. Romeo Bragato earned special services in the fight against the insect. As a measure, phylloxera were especially resistant hybrids planted, in 1960 the most common variety was the red one Isabella (here called Albany Surprise). From the end of the 19th century to 1919 there was a referendum prohibition (Alcohol ban), the turnaround for the abolition brought home soldiers. Until the 1970s, however, public wine consumption was prohibited in vehicles such as trains (trains, buses, etc.), theaters and airports.
Until 1960 there were bizarre laws, so only hotels were allowed to sell wine and a single person could buy a maximum of twelve bottles. It was common to dilute wine with water, which was only banned in 1980. But since then, New Zealand's viticulture has grown in quantity, but above all in quality. Wine law is based on Australian law. If the grape variety is stated on the label, at least 75% of this variety must be included. The requirements for winemaking are very liberal. Allowed are enrich. deacidification and leavening, The cellar master has a higher reputation than the one responsible for the vineyard. There are no yield restrictions and artificial ones irrigation is allowed without restrictions. The fertile soil is largely volcanic in origin. There is heavy rainfall in summer and autumn. The climate is quite different between the warmer North Island and the colder but sunnier South Island.
Viticulture remained limited to North Island until 1973. South Island is home to the Otago region southernmost vineyards of the world. New Zealand is also the easternmost wine-growing country due to the close date line. The "Geographical Indications (Wine and Spirits) Registration Act 2006" replaces the old geographical designation and registration law. The wine-growing regions extend around 1,200 kilometers from north to south across the two islands. The hierarchical structure is Country (New Zealand), Zone (North Island, South Island, East Coast), Region and Sub-Region. The regions in this order are:
North Island with capital Wellington
South Island with main town Christchurch
In 2012 the vineyard area covered 38,000 hectares, of which 1.940 million hectoliters of wine were produced. This is a huge increase of almost four times compared to 2000 with 11,000 hectares (see also under Wine production volumes ). The role of New Zealand as a pioneer in the use of screw cap as early as the 1980s. In 2001 the "Screwcape Initiative" was founded. And in 2005, two out of three New Zealand bottles with a screw cap were already filled. Around 70% of white wines are produced. The best are the Sauvignon Blancs from Marlborough, which made New Zealand famous. But a good part of it Bag-in-Box Wines, From the 1960s European varieties were forced, especially the Müller-Thurgau caused a sensation at the beginning and was the most common grape variety for a long time. Today it is at the lower end in terms of area and is used primarily for simple ones mass wines, The Blend 2010:
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||White||-||311|
|Muscat Blanc / Muscat Dr. Hogg||White||-||135|
|Tribidrag / Zinfandel||red||-||4|
|Garnacha Tinta||red||Grenache Noir||2|
In Lincoln, South Island, the Center for Viticulture and Oenology Research and Education is a division of Lincoln University to chat. The organization WINZ (The Wine Institute of New Zealand) was founded in 1975, but has since been renamed NZ Winegrowers. This has a huge impact on the quality and image of New Zealand viticulture. All wineries must belong to it. The four dominant companies with around 90% of the production are Corbans. Montana. Nobilo and Villa Maria, Other well-known producers are Ata Rangi Babich Cloudy Bay. Goldwater Estate. gravitas. Hunter's, Isabel Estate, Jackson Estate, Kemblefield, Kumeu River, Lincoln, Martinborough Vineyard, Matawhero. Matua Valley Millton Mission Estate. Morton Estate. nautilus. Neudorf Vineyards, Ngatarawa, Pask, Palliser Estate, Pegasus Bay, Rippon, Seyfried Estate, Stonecroft, Te Mata Millton Trinity Hill. Vidal Estate. Waimea Estates, Wairau River.