Colorless, odorless and tasteless gas (N = nitrogenium), which accounts for by far the largest proportion in the air with 78% volume. The German name reminds that nitrogen flames “suffocate” (extinguishes). Among other things, the nitrogen compounds are of great importance amino acids. alkaloids, Ammonium (compound with hydrogen, most common raw material for fertilizers), enzymes, Nitrates and saltpetre. 95% of nitrogen comes from the soil in the form of organic compounds (Norg) formed from dead plant and animal material humus, in living root mass and in soil organisms. Is a maximum of 5% mineral bound, plant-available nitrogen (Nmin) in the form of ammonium (hydrogen compound) and nitrate = saltpetre (oxygen compound). However, the organic nitrogen compounds are not available for higher quality plants. You have to go through first bacteria are converted into ammonium and nitrate, which play an important role in plant growth. Nitrates are preferentially absorbed by the roots photosynthesis are responsible for the build-up of cellular protein and chlorophyll.
Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients and is the "engine" of plant growth par excellence. To put it simply, it can be said that the production of nitrogen leaf mass and serves for root formation. Deficiency symptoms occur quite frequently. Nitrogen deficits often occur, especially on sandy soils with too little organic matter, and on wet soils with a lack of oxygen. Further losses result from denitrification, in which nitrates are reduced to gaseous nitrogen by bacteria. This is expressed by weak vigor and pale green to yellow-colored small leaves. This will make the photosynthesis inhibited and the leaf veins and petioles have a reddish discoloration. The grapes from nitrogen-poor vineyards may lack fermentable sugars and lead to problems or getting stuck fermentation to lead. Lack of nitrogen is also a cause of the wine error UTA (Atypical age tone).
However, too large quantities also have a negative effect. The excess supply of nitrogen manifests itself through dark green leaves and an overgrowth, which is shown by disproportionate thick and long internodes in the annual wood. The vines often suffer from bad fruit set and tend to Verrieseln, In addition, the diseases stem necrosis and bunch rot (e.g. Botrytis). Then there are not enough in the grapes sugar. pigments (Dyes) and phenols contain, which can have a negative impact on wine quality. Consequences are also high proportions urea and histamine in wine.
Too high nitrogen levels in the soil are also caused by greening balanced, since the plants planted absorb nitrogen and withdraw it from the vine. The nitrogen content in the soil is determined by the Nmin or the EUF method detected. Due to the high nitrogen content at just under 50% urea the world's most important nitrogen fertilizer. In the fertilization play too legumes a certain role. Nitrogen is also called inert gas (Shielding gas) used in tanks to the whitespace replenish and oxidation to prevent, as well as for that desulphurisation of grape by binding sulfur dioxide used.