The red grape variety comes from the United States, Synonyms include Arkansas, Cynthiana (specifically in the state of Arkansas), Norton's Seedling, Norton's Virginia Seedling, Norton Virginia, Red River, Virginia, Virginia Seddling and Vitis Nortoni. Next Catawba. Concord and Scuppernong counts the hybrid to the historically most important American vines. She was named after the doctor and gardener dr. Daniel Norborne Norton (1794-1842) from Richmond in Virginia named, who discovered it around the year 1820, selected and multiplied. At that time one suspected a cross between species of the species Vitis labrusca x Vitis vinifera, As close to the locality Miller's Burgundy vines (Müllerrebe = Pinot Meunier ), they took for the time being as a parent.
A similar vine named Cynthiana did not appear much later until the late 19th century. For a long time, they were considered independent, until it was finally discovered in the early 1990s that Cynthiana and Norton are identical. By 2009 took place DNA analysis was then considered true parenting Vitis aestivalis x Vitis vinifera whereas the European variety is not Pinot Meunier but rather mglw. around a seedling of Enfariné Noir acted. Norton was a crossing partner of the new breeds albania. Cabernet Diane. Cabernet Doré. Hopkins. Crimson Cabernet. Kentucky. Norton White and Zinthiana,
Norton introduced the vine to the public in 1835. It was named Norton's Virginia in 1876 by Hermann Goethe (1837-1911) and 1885 by August-Wilhelm Freiherr von Babo (1827-1894). To prohibition it was widespread in the Midwest and the Eastern United States. It has become popular there as "Cabernet of the Ozarks" (the Ozark Plateau is a mountainous country in Arkansas and Missouri). A wine called "Virginia Claret" by the Monticello Wine Company (historic estate of US President Thomas Jefferson ) won a gold medal in Wien in 1873 as the "Best Wine of All Nations" and a silver medal in Paris in 1878. At the height of the Phylloxera disaster in the second half of the 19th century she became in France used for the restoration of devastated vineyards, but failed due to the lime intolerance of the vine.
The vine is moderately prone to fake mildew, very suitable for pebbles and sand, but very sensitive to lime soils, as well as resistant to many others fungal diseases and also against frost to minus 26 ° Celsius. She provides spicy, that Cabernet Sauvignon and Zinfandel similar, very tannin-rich red wines with a high proportion of the antioxidant resveratrol with aromas of red fruits and sometimes subtle Foxton, It was therefore named "Cabernet of the Ozarks" (the Ozark Plateau is a mountainous country in Arkansas and Missouri). From the 1990s, there was a true renaissance. It is now widespread in the Northeast and Midwest in many US states. The variety is among others in Arkansas. Florida. Illinois (24 ha), Iowa (4 ha), Kansas, Kentucky. Louisiana. Missouri (124 ha), Nebraska, New Jersey. Tennessee. Texas and Virginia grown. In Brazil are planted under the name Cynthiana 102 hectares. In 2010, a total acreage of 329 hectares was designated (Kym Anderson ).
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)