The red grape variety comes from the United States, Synonyms are Arkansas, Cynthiana (especially in the state of Arkansas), Norton's Seedling, Norton's Virginia Seedling, Norton Virginia, Red River, Virginia, Virginia Seddling and Vitis Nortoni. Next Catawba. Concord and Scuppernong counts the hybrid to the historically most important American vines. After the doctor and gardener Dr. Daniel Norborne Norton (1794-1842) from Richmond in Virginia named, who discovered, selected and propagated them around 1820. At that time, a cross between varieties of the species was suspected Vitis labrusca x Vitis vinifera, Because near the place of discovery Miller's Burgundy vines (Müllerrebe = Pinot Meunier ), they were initially adopted as a parent.
A similar vine called Cynthiana only appeared much later in the late 19th century. For a long time, she was considered independent until it was finally discovered in the early 1990s that Cynthiana and Norton are identical. Through 2009 DNA analysis then became true parenting Vitis aestivalis x Vitis vinifera determined, whereby the European variety is not Pinot Meunier, but possibly. for a seedling of Enfariné Noir acted. Norton was a crossing partner of the new varieties albania. Cabernet Diane. Cabernet Doré. Hopkins. Crimson Cabernet. Gold coin. Kentucky. Norton White and Zinthiana,
Norton introduced the vine to the public in 1835. It was named Norton's Virginia in 1876 by Hermann Goethe (1837-1911) and 1885 by August-Wilhelm Freiherr von Babo (1827-1894). To prohibition it was widespread in the Midwest and Eastern United States. It has become popular there as the "Cabernet of the Ozarks" (the Ozark Plateau is a mountainous area in Arkansas and Missouri). A wine called "Virginia Claret" by the Monticello Wine Company (historic property of the US President Thomas Jefferson ) won a gold medal in Wien in 1873 as “Best Wine of All Nations” and a silver medal in Paris in 1878. At the height of the Phylloxera disaster in the second half of the 19th century it was in France used for the restoration of the devastated vineyards, which failed due to the limestone intolerance of the vine.
The vine is moderately susceptible to the wrong people mildew, well suited for pebble and sand, but very sensitive to limestone soils, and resistant to many others fungal diseases and also against frost to minus 26 ° Celsius. It yields spicy to the Cabernet Sauvignon and Zinfandel Similar, very tannic red wines with a high proportion of the antioxidant resveratrol with aromas of red fruits and sometimes subtle Foxton, It was therefore also called the "Cabernet of the Ozarks" (the Ozark Plateau is a mountainous region in Arkansas and Missouri). There was a real renaissance from the 1990s. It is now common in the Northeast and Midwest in many states in the United States. The variety is used in Arkansas. Florida. Illinois (24 ha), Iowa (4 ha), Kansas, Kentucky. Louisiana. Missouri (124 ha), Nebraska, New Jersey. Tennessee. Texas and Virginia grown. In Brazil are planted 102 hectares under the name of Cynthiana. In 2010, a total area of 329 hectares was designated (cym Anderson ).
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)