In winegrowing usual plant or a farm for the rearing of Pfropfreben and Unterlagsreben analogous to a nursery. Often, a processing plant is also connected. An important basis for the rearing and / or "Einschulung" are light to moderate, at humus rich soils that allow rapid rooting. Prerequisite is above all an adequate supply of potassium (Potassium salts) and magnesium, The plant must be little risk of frost, warm and protected from the wind, and free of virus-transmitting nematodes (Roundworms). Only by one vegetative propagation ensures that the newly created vines have the exact same genes and thus characteristics as the original vine. A generative propagation sowing and rearing of grape seeds is therefore out of the question. Basis for the subsequent vine are two components, namely the scion (Top) and the document (Lower part). Both are raised separately and only through finishing, Pushing and subsequent training to a plantable cuttings,
The Edelreiser are observed by several years in officially recognized yield vineyards and tested on their positive viticultural characteristics Clone won (clone selection). The best of them with special requirements act after admission as so-called Basispflanzgut (mother vines). Of these, 80 centimeters long one year old rods are separated. The cut takes place at the end of December until mid-January, to prevent damage to the bud caused by frosts. The rods must be at least seven, in some with long internodes as in the varieties Blaufränkisch (Lemberger), Trollinger or Dornfelder only five malleable eyes respectively. From a mother vine can be won up to 50 Edelreiser. They are stored airtight in plastic films of 100 or 200 pieces, until they are used in cold rooms with 1 to 2 ° Celsius, in order to protect the reserve materials, above all carbohydrates to get in the wood. For the finishing The rods are then cut into small pieces with one eye each. Above the eye must remain a stub with at least 1.5 inches in length, under the eye remains a pin with at least 5 inches in length.
The documents become as well as grape varieties with certain characteristics and for certain soil types by intersections bred, due to the indispensable phylloxera resistance always American vines involved. In a nursery, therefore, not only the desired grape variety with possibly also the desired clone type, but also the optimal for the vineyard suitable pad is ordered, with which it was refined (eg "Riesling clone 64 Geisenheim" with pad " Kober 5 BB "). The documents are a one-year-old wood that is produced in so-called cut gardens. Since they require warm, less frost-prone locations for growth, they are mostly produced in northern Italy or southern France. They are raised either without support on the ground or by means of Greiner-Decker sheared piling, resulting in 8 to 10 rods, each several meters in length. The harvest takes place in January and February, while the rods are cut just above the head. The length must be divisible by 40, but at least 120 centimeters. The cut to the final length of 30 centimeters then takes place just before the refining. The lower cut surface is about 1.5 to 2 inches below a wound dry (Node). Later, the roots are formed at this interface. All eyes are cut out, which is typically referred to as dazzling. From a single Rebstock About 60 to 80 documents can be harvested.
Immediately after the finishing To protect against dehydration, a waxing of the cuttings including the finishing point with liquid, hot finishing wax. This wax also contains substances for the inhibition of Botrytis and to promote callus formation. Afterwards, 500 to 600 vines are packed into plastic pre-crating boxes, which are filled with wet peat moss up to the refining point. About it is with sand or perlite refilled. Then, in bright, heatable rooms, mostly glasshouses, the pre-schooling of the vines in the boxes takes place, whereby the formation of callus (Wound tissue) promoted, the eye to the expulsion brought and first root tips are formed. The appointment is based on the subsequent training, in the northern hemisphere this is usually in the last April decade. The duration is between two and three weeks. Prerequisite is a uniform temperature, high humidity and good ventilation. The young shoots should develop as short as possible. They are accompanied by regular spraying Chinosol protected against botrytis. This is followed by the hardening , in which the vines are slowly adjusted to the normal temperature conditions within a week.
The enrollment begins after the late frosts in mid-May. The formerly common "grave method" was replaced from the end of the 1970s by the so-called "film process". By means of a laying machine, a slightly arched earth dam is thrown over which a plastic film is pulled. This about 75 centimeters wide, black colored and thus a higher floor heat causing film polyethylene is covered at the edges with earth, so that the wind is offered no attack surface. Thereafter, the films are rolled over with a spiked with spiked wheel, so that every 6 to 8 centimeters holes are punched into it. Through these holes, the cuttings are inserted about 10 inches deep into the ground. In contrast to the earlier trenching process, the foil process does not cause any unwanted rooting out of the glutinous rice. After the greening are care measures such as soil loosening, foliage cut and preventive treatment with fungicides against false and wettable sulfur against real ones mildew required. During the official inspection in the summer, the vines are tested as a prerequisite for the recognition of variety purity.
After this leaf fall In November, the grape harvesting takes place. Before the shoots are cut to about 15 centimeters and the vines are dug, the roots are cut to 25 centimeters. Now, all vines are checked especially for optimal adhesion of scion and base by the manual pressure and rotation test. It must not come to the breaking of the callus ring or a gap formation in the area of the refining. Until they are marketed and planted in spring, the vines are stored in cold stores. According to an EU directive adopted in 1992, a "plant passport" is required for all vines placed on the market within the EU, including, but not limited to, producer country, producer, botanical name, species and variety. As an alternative to the nursery, vines are also referred to as so-called potted vines generated. Instead of training in the open air, the process takes place with the potted vineyards air conditioned. With multiple use of a soil, it may be the so-called vine fatigue come. See also a complete list of all resource specific keywords below grapevine,