Plant common in viticulture or a company for the cultivation of graft vines and rootstocks similar to a tree nursery. A finishing plant is often also connected. An important basis for the rearing or "schooling" are light to moderate humus rich soils that allow quick rooting. Above all, an adequate supply of potassium (Potassium salts) and magnesium, The system has to be little exposed to frost, warm and protected from the wind, and free from virus-transmitting nematodes (Roundworms). Only by one vegetative propagation it is guaranteed that the newly created vines have exactly the same genes and thus properties as the original vine. A generative propagation Sowing and growing grape seeds is therefore out of the question. The basis for the later vine are two components, namely that scion (Top) and the document (Lower part). Both are raised separately and only by finishing, Advance and subsequent training for a plantable cuttings,
The noble vines are observed for several years in officially recognized vineyards and tested for their positive viticultural properties Clone won (clone selection). The best of them with special requirements function as so-called basic planting material (mother vines) after approval. 80-centimeter long annual rods are separated from these. The cut is made at the end of December to mid-January to prevent damage to the buds from frost. The rods must have at least seven, some with long internodes like the varieties Blaufränkisch (Lemberger), Trollinger or Dornfelder only five refinable eyes exhibit. Up to 50 fine vines can be obtained from one mother vine. Until further use, they are stored in airtight 1 to 2 ° Celsius airtight packaging in plastic films of 100 or 200 pieces in order to preserve the reserve materials carbohydrates to get in the wood. For the finishing the rods are then cut into small pieces with one eye each. A stub with a length of at least 1.5 centimeters must remain above the eye, and a cone with a length of at least 5 centimeters remains under the eye.
The documents like grape varieties are targeted with certain properties and for certain soil types by intersections bred, due to the indispensable phylloxera resistance always American vines involved. In a vine school, therefore, not only the desired grape variety with possibly the desired clone type is ordered, but also the underlay which is best suited for the vineyard and with which it was refined (e.g. "Riesling clone 64 Geisenheim" with underlay " Kober 5 BB "). The documents are annual wood that is produced in so-called cut gardens. Since they need warm locations that are not at risk of frost for growth, they are mostly produced in northern Italy or southern France. They are raised either without support on the ground or by means of Greiner-Deckerscher inclined pile education, so that there are 8 to 10 rods, each several meters long. The harvest takes place in January and February, with the rods being cut off just above the head. The length must be divisible by 40, but must be at least 120 centimeters. The final length of 30 centimeters is then cut shortly before finishing. The lower cut surface is about 1.5 to 2 centimeters below one wound dry (Node). The roots later develop at this interface. All eyes are cut out, which is typically called blinds. From one Rebstock about 60 to 80 documents can be harvested.
Immediately after the finishing To protect against drying out, the cuttings are waxed, including the processing point with liquid, hot processing wax. This wax also contains substances for the inhibition of Botrytis as well as to promote callus formation. Then 500 to 600 vines are packed in plastic advance boxes, which are filled with wet peat garbage up to the processing point. It is covered with sand or perlite refilled. Then, in bright, heatable rooms, usually glass houses, the vines are pushed forward (preschools) in the boxes, which leads to the formation of callus (Wound tissue) encourages the eye to expulsion brought and first root tips are formed. The date is based on the subsequent schooling, in the northern hemisphere this is usually in the last decade of April. The duration is between two and three weeks. A prerequisite is an even temperature, high humidity and good ventilation. The young shoots should develop as shortly as possible. They are sprayed with regularly Chinosol protected against botrytis. This is followed by hardening , in which the vines are slowly adjusted to the normal temperature conditions within a week.
The school starts after the late frosts around mid-May. The formerly known “trench method” was replaced in the late 1970s by the so-called “foil method”. Using a laying machine, a slightly curved earth dam is thrown over which a plastic film is pulled. This about 75 centimeter wide, black colored film and thus a higher floor heat polyethylene is covered with soil at the edges so that the wind is not exposed to any surface. Then the foils are rolled over with a wheel studded with thorns so that holes are punched in every 6 to 8 centimeters. Through these holes, the cuttings are inserted about 10 centimeters deep into the earth. In contrast to the earlier trench process, the film process does not cause unwanted rooting out of the noble rice. After greening, maintenance measures such as loosening the soil, cutting leaves and preventive treatment are included fungicides against wrong and wettable sulfur against real mildew required. During the official inspection in summer, the vines are checked as a prerequisite for recognition of varietal purity.
After this leaf fall in November, the Ausschulung of the vines is done. Before that, the shoots are shortened to about 15 centimeters and the vines are excavated, the roots being cut to 25 centimeters. Now all vines are checked, in particular with regard to the optimal adhesion of fine rice and rootstock, by means of the manual pressure and turning test. The callus ring should not crack open or a gap should form in the area of the finishing point. The vines are stored in cold rooms until they are marketed and planted out in the spring. According to an EU directive issued in 1992, a “plant passport” is prescribed for all vines placed on the market in the EU, which include the country of origin, the producer, the botanical name, the noble rice variety and the type of rootstock. As an alternative to the vine school, vines are also known as so-called potted vines generated. Instead of schooling outdoors, the process is air-conditioned with the potted vines. If a floor is used several times, it can become a vine fatigue come. See also a complete list of all grape-specific keywords under grapevine,