The roots of vine can drill down to a depth of 15 meters and remove a variety of substances from the soil. However, you can not record them in solid form. The weathering converts the substances into the smallest particles, which can only be absorbed by the roots in an aqueous solution. The soil water with its ingredients is called soil solution. A good vineyard soil is characterized by a good Water storage capacity and an optimal one water discharge (without waterlogging) off. In most of the European wine-growing regions, the water supply is left to nature as artificial irrigation For quality wines usually prohibited and in exceptional cases requires approval.
The nutrients have a decisive influence on the quality of the wine in as optimal an amount as possible. This "right composition" is one of the secrets of a "good vineyard soil" or ideal soil type and explains why vines from a particular location or a particular terroirs Do not produce top-quality wines and a nearby vineyard.
The main nutrients include the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). They are in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air, as well water (H2O) taken from the ground. Also taken from the soil are the other major nutrients needed in larger quantities potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), as well as needed only in smaller quantities trace elements or micronutrients boron (B), chlorine (Cl), iron (Fe) copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn). With the exception of nitrogen, all substances have been released from the rock-forming minerals in the course of the rock weathering and are therefore also referred to as minerals. From this derives the term often used in wine descriptions mineral from.
But only a part of the substances contained in the soil is available for the vine. They can only be taken up by it if they are in the form of certain ions (positively charged atoms) in the soil solution. Most of the nutrients are embedded in minerals or in organic molecules. In this fixed form they are not recordable. Only through the microorganisms in the soil the organic compounds are broken down and the nutrients are released in available form.
In the vine then the individual substances have very specific tasks such as assistance in the photosynthesis, Structure and growth of the plant tissue and formation of the sugar. Many of these minerals and substances are then in the wine and give it character and quality. They are called ash (for all ingredients in wine see under total extract ). By site-appropriate fertilization In the vineyard soil deficiencies are eliminated or nutrient losses are compensated. Which substances are used also depends on the type of cultivation (see a list below) Organic viticulture ). A complete list of all works / procedures in the vineyard during the growth cycle is under Weingarten Care contain.