The roots of the vine can drill down to a depth of 15 meters and remove a variety of substances from the ground. However, you cannot record them in solid form. Weathering converts the substances into tiny particles, which can only be taken up by the roots in an aqueous solution. Soil water with its ingredients is called a soil solution. A good vineyard soil is characterized by a good one Water storage capacity and an optimal one water discharge (without waterlogging). In most European wine-growing regions, the water supply is left to nature because it is artificial irrigation is generally prohibited for quality wines and is subject to approval in exceptional cases.
The optimal amount of nutrients has a decisive influence on the quality of the wine. This "right composition" is one of the secrets of a "good vineyard soil" or ideal soil type and explains why vines from a certain location or a special one terroirs Produce top-quality wines and a nearby vineyard just doesn't.
The main nutrients include the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). They are in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air, as well water (H2O) taken from the ground. The other main nutrients required in larger quantities are also absorbed from the soil potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), as well as those only required in smaller quantities trace elements or micronutrients boron (B), chlorine (Cl), iron (Fe) copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mon) and zinc (Zn). With the exception of nitrogen, all substances have been released from the rock-forming minerals in the course of rock weathering and are therefore also referred to as minerals. From this derives the term often used in wine descriptions mineral from.
But only a part of the substances contained in the soil is available for the vine. It can only be absorbed if it is in the form of certain ions (positively charged atoms) in the soil solution. The majority of the nutrients are embedded in minerals or in organic molecules. However, they cannot be recorded in this specified form. Only through that microorganisms in the soil the organic compounds are broken down and the nutrients are released in the available form.
In the vine, the individual substances then have very specific tasks, such as helping with the photosynthesis, Structure and growth of plant tissue and formation of sugar. Many of these minerals and substances are then in the wine and give it character and quality. They are considered ash designated (for all ingredients in wine see under total extract ). By appropriate location fertilization defects in the vineyard soil are eliminated or nutrient losses compensated. Which substances are used also depends on the type of management (see a list under Organic viticulture ). A complete list of all work / procedures in the vineyard during the growth cycle is under Weingarten Care contain.