The roots of the vine can drill down to a depth of 15 meters and remove a variety of substances from the ground. However, you cannot record them in solid form. Weathering converts the substances into tiny particles that can only be taken up by the roots in an aqueous solution. Soil water with its ingredients is called a soil solution. A good vineyard soil is characterized by a good one Water storage capacity and an optimal one water discharge (without waterlogging). In most European wine-growing regions, the water supply is left to nature because it is artificial irrigation is generally prohibited for quality wines and is subject to approval in exceptional cases.
The main nutrients include the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). They are in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air, as well water (H2O) taken from the ground. The other main nutrients required in larger quantities are also absorbed from the soil potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N), as well as those only required in smaller quantities trace elements or micronutrients boron (B), chlorine (Cl), iron (Fe) copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mon) and zinc (Zn). With the exception of nitrogen, all substances have been released from the rock-forming minerals in the course of rock weathering and are therefore also referred to as minerals. From this derives the term often used in wine descriptions mineral from.
In the vine, the substances have certain tasks such as helping with the photosynthesis, Structure and growth of plant tissue and formation of sugar. But only a part of the substances contained in the soil is available for the vine. They can only be absorbed if they are in the form of certain ions (positively charged atoms) in the soil solution. The majority of the nutrients are embedded in minerals or in organic molecules. However, they cannot be recorded in this specified form. Only through that microorganisms the organic compounds in the soil are broken down and the nutrients are released in the available form.
Various causes can lead to a deficiency or an excess of certain substances. A deficiency is mainly shown by typical discolouration in the leaves and changes in growth. Noticeable leaf discoloration is particularly noticeable between late summer and autumn:
By appropriate location fertilization defects in the vineyard soil are eliminated or nutrient losses compensated. The type of substance also depends on the management (see under Organic viticulture ).
The nutrients have a decisive influence on the quality of the wine. The "right composition" is one of the secrets of a "good vineyard soil" or ideal soil type and explains why grapevines from a particular location or a special one terroirs Produce top-quality wines and a nearby vineyard just doesn't. Many substances then get into the wine and give it typical properties (see a complete list of all the ingredients in wine below total extract ).
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain.
Source of nutrient deficiency and pictures: LVWO vineyard