Name for the physiological value of a food, depending on the amount and the ratio of its ingredients. However, since this also depends on the type of preparation and the combination of individual foods, as well as the scientific evaluation of individual substances is not yet secured, it is not yet a completely objectivizable size. The main ingredients of the nutritional value of a food are the so-called "big four", which is the calorific value, as well as the content of proteins (Proteins), carbohydrates and fats. The content of minerals and also plays a role vitamins, The usable energy is called physiological calorific value . This value corresponds to their energy content in "combustion" (cellular respiration) in the body.
The evaluation of this combustion is called quantitative nutritional value . This is given in kilojoules, however, the outdated designation kilocalorie is still in use. The conversion: 1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ; 1 kJ = 0.2388 kcal, 1 kcal = 1.163 Wh (watt-hour). Nutrition labeling is the indication of the average nutritional value on the packaging. Their information is usually voluntary within the EU, but can be found on numerous foods. The use of certain terms is per EU Regulation regulated with limit values per 100 g or 100 ml. These are, for example, low in fat, low in carbohydrates and low in sugar. At the Wine means "low carbohydrate" maximum 7 g per glass, which is given in most wines.
Alcohol contains the most calories in fat, almost twice as much sugar, Wine has a relatively high calorific value or high proportion of calories, namely around 550 to 600 Kcal per 0.75 liter bottle or 90 to 100 Kcal per glass ( red wine something more) which is mainly due to the alcohol content is due. With a bottle brandy with 38% vol alcohol content this is around three times. The alcohol is a high energy carrier, per gram, this is 7 Kcal, which are on average per eighth wine almost 90 Kcal. One liter of wine corresponds to approximately: 0.8 kg of potatoes, 1 l of whole milk, 10 eggs, 100 g of butter, 400 g of rye bread or three rolls with 50 g of liver cheese. For light work, humans need about 2,500 Kcal per day, or about 4,000 Kcal for heavy work. The US beverage multinational Diageo already started in 2004 to indicate the "big four" on the labels of some wines. example Chardonnay : 124 Kcal, less than 1 g protein, 3 g carbohydrates, 0 g fat per 5 ounce serving "(0.15 l).