Term for the entirety of all meteorological processes or possible weather conditions including the typical sequence as well as the daily and seasonal fluctuations, which are responsible for the average state of the earth's atmosphere at a certain location. The name (Greek for climate = curvature) is derived from the curvature of the globe and the resulting locally different angle of incidence. The climate is shaped not only by processes within the atmosphere, but rather by the interplay of all spheres on earth (continents, seas, atmosphere) and solar activity.
As a delimitation to Weather (Hours to weeks) and for weather (a few days to a week, up to a month or a season), climate is understood as a state of the earth's atmosphere that has been statistically determined over a period of several decades (at least 30 years). Areas of the same climatic conditions are classified into climatic zones and thereby classified. There are different classifications; the most famous comes from the German-Russian climatologist and biologist Vladimir Peter Köppen (1846-1940). This was then continued by the German meteorologist Rudolf Geiger (1894-1981).
The climatic characteristics result from many factors such as exposition (Sunlight), precipitation. temperature. humidity and wind as well as their sequence and interaction. Next to the soil type who planted there vine and the individual type of winemaking the climate is a crucial factor for that wine quality, But the very special climatic conditions for a small area in which the vineyard is located (microclimate, layered climate) and even more small-scale conditions (microclimate) play an important role. The vine thrives best in warm, temperate zones of the northern and southern hemisphere, the so-called vines belts, These are the relatively narrow areas between 40th and 50th latitude in the northern hemisphere and between 30th and 40th latitude in the southern hemisphere.
The grapevine above all needs heat and light. According to studies by the research institute, the optimal temperature for growth is Geisenheim between 25 and 28 ° Celsius. This is mainly determined by the altitude. As a rule of thumb, it drops by 0.6 ° for every 100 meters difference in altitude. A hillside is ideal for sun exposure. In addition, the thermals are favorable, because the cold air currents fall down the slope at night, where they heat up in the morning and move up again during the day. This cycle is especially for white wines in terms of acidification important.
The tops of hills are planted with trees to slow down the influx of cold air, which is used in Europe primarily in Germany, Austria and France. Practice a positive climatic influence on viticulture waters (Rivers, lakes, seas) because these reflect the light. It is no coincidence that many important wine-growing regions are located on water.
The northernmost vineyards for quality wine growing are in Germany (51st latitude) and England (52nd latitude). The southernmost winegrowing borders are at the Cape in South Africa (35th latitude), in Argentina and Chile, as well as on the southern main island New Zealand (40th latitude). From the equator to the 20th degree north and south latitude through tropical Conditions with heat and drought no viticulture, or only in higher areas up to 2,000 meters above sea level such as B. in Kenya, Outside of these areas there is too little sunshine and precipitation or the risk of cold and frost, The suitability of a region or the criteria for quality winegrowing is under Weinbauwürdigkeit described.
The first scientific study of the influence of the climate on viticulture came from the Swiss botanist Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (1806-1893) in the mid-19th century. The two US researchers Albert Julius used this knowledge Winkler (1894-1989) Maynard A. Amerine (1911-1998) by the University of California, In 1944, they introduced the so-called degree days system, the California divided into a total of five climate zones. In the meantime, a number of different climate classification systems have been developed worldwide on this basis. In the period of the annual growth cycle of the vine or for the entire year various criteria measured and used for the...