Set of all processes, techniques and measures in the vineyard and cellar to get out grapes one Wine to produce. Grape varieties were cultivated and wine produced at least 6,000 if not 8,000 years ago, as evidenced by plant remains found in Asia Minor and numerous ancient ones wine vessels and artifacts from many areas. Considered the cradle of wine culture Transcaucasia and the high cultures Mesopotamia, The origins of European viticulture, however, lie primarily in ancient times Greece and on the island Crete, Of course, this was done at the time with rather primitive methods (see in detail under Ancient wines and Ancient grape varieties as well as the development of the "cultural asset wine" under drinking culture ). Interestingly, today some ancient techniques are used again, such as in the production of Orange Wine (Natural Wine) is the case.
As a rule, the process, also known as vinification, is carried out today using sophisticated methods. It is in the art of winegrower, the "right" procedures with the greatest care and hygiene apply or if necessary to waive it. In brochures and on winegrower websites, one often reads the catchwords of “controlled doing nothing” or “as much as necessary and as little as possible” or of noninvasive Winemaking. This means gentle, low-stress production by using gravity as much as possible when transporting grapes, must and wine, using certain techniques such as filtration or beautiful waived or as few as possible to no substances up to the hardly replaceable sulfur used. So it applies to the around 300 approved Means in winemaking use as correctly as possible.
The specific conditions in a vineyard in connection with the tradition and the art of the winemaker in the area in question are often associated with the French term terroir designated. Winemaking begins with the selection of vine and also that document which, due to their individual properties, should be taken into account as climatic Relationships and des soil type selects or plants. The essential prerequisite for good quality is Weinbauwürdigkeit, i.e. the suitability of an area / region for viticulture, for which there are a multitude of measurable criteria. This then continues with the Weingarten Care (Catchphrase "Quality already arises in the vineyard"), the different cellar techniques listed below for each type of wine as well as the bottling and is eventually eventually stored in the bottle ended before marketing.
Depending on the quality and type of wine, this can only take a few weeks or months for simple wines, but for special products such as sparkling wine respectively. champagne, Dessert wines like Madeira. port wine and sherry as well as in wooden barrels or Barrique aged wines can even take a few years before they can be marketed. For top wines with a long durability or maturity potential, the process continues with the bottle aging continued. This means that such wines only take a long time to mature after many years maturity to reach.
Under the keyword special wines there is a list of around 200 in glossary described wines with often imaginative names. For the most part, however, these have no traditional or colloquial meaning in terms of wine law, only local ones. For example bikini wine. Firewine. prison wine. spiced wine. counter wine. Pope wine. gun wine. final wine. holiday wine, and second wine, Also Barrique wine. Dessert wine. diabetics wine. kosher wine. altar wine. Orange Wine (not yet), sweet wine and vegetarian wine are not relevant to wine law, but only colloquial terms for certain types of wine.
Alphabetical list of all types of wine, sparkling wine and distillate regulated by law, with other beverages from wine / fruit / cereal products listed: