Also as a “commercial tannins “Designated chemical substances caused by extraction can be obtained from woods and fruits. A distinction is made between two groups. The from grape seeds or rape ( Press residues) obtained from grapes (flavanoid) tannins come very close to the natural tannins of red wine. The second group is made from fruits such as gall apples or woods such as oak, chestnut or quebracho (trees and shrubs from South America). These are referred to as woody (hydrolyzable) tannins , or as ellag tannins , because they stand out oxidation and sour hydrolysis to degradation products such as ellagic acid decompose. They promote the under certain conditions polymerization of the anthocyanins (Dyes) to more intensely colored, sulfur dioxide-stable color pigments.
Most of the tannins on the market fall into this second group. However, industrial production is difficult to do without contamination. When it comes to the extraction, the basic products also turn into other herbal ingredients such as, for example, in addition to tannin lignin and cellulose with extracted. Under certain circumstances, however, these substances can cause undesirable changes in taste in the wine. They are used in the preparation of red wine for the purpose of color stability and improvement texture (Taste) used. In some cases, they can also help to improve color depth and aging potential.
The tannins can be added at various times during the vinification process, namely at maceration, after malolactic fermentation, before the barrel aging or even before bottling, The effect can be quite different depending on the time. The mash treatment tannins (from non-aged wood) have a more color-stabilizing effect but only to a small extent also a color-enhancing effect, but the wine treatment tannins (from aged, toasted wood) have a harmonizing, taste-improving effect. When using it, make sure that there is a harmonious relationship between tannins and anthocyanins consists. Color-intensive, low-tannin red wines also tolerate more tannins. However, bright red wines with a low anthocyanin content become inharmonic.
The use is permitted within the EU without any quantity restrictions. However, this only applies to products in solid or powder form. In liquid form, however, they are prohibited because, according to the EU Commission, the review is relatively difficult and possible wine adulteration Could be encouraged. Enological tannins have become the most used but not uncontroversial additives. Another form of tannin addition is toasted Wood chips (Oak chips, Staves). These are considered an alternative for the Barrique used. Such methods are used especially in overseas vinification of so-called Coca-Cola wines and fruit bombs applied. Other means of influencing wine taste and wine quality are oenological enzymes,
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,