Also called "commercial tannins "Designated chemical substances by extraction be obtained from woods and fruits. There is a distinction between two groups. The from grape seeds or rape ( Press residues) obtained grape-borne (flavanoiden) tannins come quite close to the natural tannin of red wine. The second group is made from fruits such as gall and wood such as oak, chestnut or quebracho (trees and shrubs from South America). These are referred to as woody (hydrolyzable) tannins , or as ellagannins, because they pass through oxidation and sour hydrolysis to degradation products such as ellagic acid decompose. They promote the under certain conditions polymerization the anthocyanins (Dyes) to intensely colored, sulfur dioxide-stable color pigments.
Most of the tannins available on the market fall into this second group. The industrial production is difficult but possible without impurities. In the extraction of the basic products in addition to the tannin and other herbal ingredients such as lignin and cellulose extracted with. However, these substances may possibly cause undesirable changes in the taste of the wine. They are used in red wine preparation for color stability and improvement of the texture (Taste) used. In part, they can also help to improve the color depth and the aging potential.
The addition of tannins can take place at different times of winemaking and that in the maceration, after malolactic fermentation, before the barrel aging or even before the bottling, The effect can be quite different depending on the time. The mash tannins (from non-seasoned wood) have more color-stabilizing but to a lesser extent color-enhancing effect, the wine tannins (from seasoned, toasted wood), however, have a harmonizing, taste-improving effect. When applying it is important to ensure that a harmonious relationship between tannins and anthocyanins consists. Color-intensive, tannin-red wines also tolerate more tannins. Bright red wines with low anthocyanin content, however, become inharmonious.
The use is permitted within the EU without any quantitative restrictions. However, this only applies to products in solid or powdered form. In liquid form, however, they are prohibited because, according to the EU Commission, the review is relatively difficult and possible wine adulteration Feed could be made. Oenological tannins have become the most widely used but not undisputed additives. Another form of Tanninsusetzung are toasted Wood chips (Oak chips, staves). These are considered an alternative to the Barrique used. Such methods are particularly used overseas in the vinification of so-called Coca-Cola wines and fruit bombs applied. Other means of influencing the taste of wine and the quality of wine are the oenological enzymes,
All aids, works and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle one finds below Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,