As a rule, at least 25-year-olds apply vines as "old". Age is often used by producers for promotional purposes to indicate a particular quality. This is indicated by designations such as "Old vines" or French "Vieilles vignes" on label noted. Many French Appellation regulations stipulate that no vines under the age of three may be used. Many major wineries in France use only self-imposed (non-wine) minimum age vines for the First Wines. However, there is no universally valid minimum age and the term is therefore used differently and has no legal meaning. Sometimes they will ungrafted (unrefined) vines understood.
After creating new Rebstock, the Virgin Reading or the pressing of the maiden wine only after at least three to five years. The age of a vine has an effect on the quality of the wine, and you often hear the slogan "the older, the better". Normally, the vigor and the begin earnings At around 20 years of age, it gradually fades and becomes uneconomical at the age of about 50 years. In general, vineyards live in Central Europe barely more than 25 to 30 years, then they are usually replaced due to lower yields. Slowly, however, a certain trend reversal can be observed. More and more wineries are cultivating vines with a respectable age of 50, 60, 70 and in some cases even more than 100 years on smaller areas.
Wines tend to have (but not in principle) very often a better quality. The main reason is the lower one earnings but there are other factors as well, such as lower growth leaves and fruit better, more intense exposition (Solar radiation) a role. Likewise, the root system that has been extensively ramified in old vines has a positive effect, although root activity decreases with increasing age. But there is also the phenomenon that some vineyards produce the best wine qualities in the first two to three years of production. The reason for this is among other things an optimal relationship between foliage and fruit. But that is clearly the exception.
As a result, a list of up to over 500-year-old vines and vineyards in Europe and overseas. However, this does not claim to be complete:
Winery Penfolds in Australia
The Australian wine gut Penfolds keltert in smallest quantities of planted in 1885 in the vineyard "Kalimna" Cabernet Sauvignon vines a red wine. A special project was "Ampoule" of the year 2004, filled in an exclusive glass container with the volume of 0.75 liters in a wooden box, of which one was sold for unbelievable € 160,000. He is one of the absolute most expensive wines in the world,
Hampton Court Palace in London
A 250 year old grapevine Located in a glasshouse of the "Hampton Court Palace" in southwest London, which was planted in 1769 by the gardener Lancelot "Capability" Brown (1716-1783). It is a Black Hamburg ( Schiava Grossa ). The trunk circumference is four meters, the longest shoot is 75 meters. It still bears fruit every year. On YouTube there is a video about this plant (click to view).
Old vines in France, South Tyrol and Germany
In the area Touraine ( Loire ) exists a small one plot from 1850 originating Romorantin vines, Just as old are some parcels of Bollinger with pinot noir vines in front of the phylloxera, In the municipality Prissian ( South-Tirol ) there is a 350 year old vine of the variety Versoaln from which wine is still being made. The winery Schneiders cultivates in the situation Rosenberg (Pommern, Mosel) ungrafted Riesling vines from 1860.
From the Community Producteurs Plaimont in the Gers in Southwest France under the name "Conservatoire ampélographique" parcels are monitored with old vine stocks. In the community Sarragachies There is a vineyard with over 200-year-old vines or ancient grape varieties.
Guinness record in Maribor Slovenia
According to the Guinness Book of Records, the oldest vine in the world (450 years old) called "Stara Trta" (Old Grapevine) exists in Maribor ( Slovenia ). This is the variety žametovka (Blue Cologne). It grows in the district Lent on the left bank of the river Drava on a house wall. In honor of this vine all year long events take place under the title "From Vine to Wine" (slow "Od trte do vina"). The highlight of the festivities is the annual grape harvest. From the approximately 50 kg of grapes a relatively sweet red wine is produced. This is bottled in quarter liter bottles designed by Slovenian artist Oskar Kogoj (around 100 each year). These are given away on the occasion of state visits to heads of state or to prominent visitors such as Bill Clinton or Pope John Paul II. An offshoot of this vine thrives in the courtyard of Ptuj.
over 500 years old vines
But there are probably even older vines. Because in the year 2000 was in St. Georgen (Burgenland, Austria) a several centuries old and previously unknown vine found, which was named after the locality or the community. Later he turned out to be a long-sought second parent of the Green Veltliners, And in November 2008 were in the single location monastery Disibodenberg of the winery Racknitz (Odernheim, Nahe) five wild grapevines of the Orleans discovered, which are probably at least 500 years old.
Further information can be found under the following keywords for this subject area:
Grape varieties: MIPAAF - National Vine Certification Service